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Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions. Eukaryotic micro-organisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms?all of which are microorganisms?are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on extraction or detection of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA sequences.
|A Chinese male has had right upper quadrant pain for the past 10 years. Workup for gallbladder disease with an ultrasound shows small linear organisms. O&P exam reveals the ovoid, flask shaped egg of Clonorchis sinensis. Which of the following statements is false regarding Clonorchis sinensis?
A. It is also called the oriental liver fluke
B. Man is a definitive host
C. This infection can best be treated with surgical removal of the gallbladder
D. There are two intermediate hosts - the snail and the fish
E. Long-term infection has been associated with cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile duct)
|All of the following are syndromes associated with enteroviruses EXCEPT?
B. Coronary artery disease
|Infections caused by anaerobes are?
* A. Usually confined to the abdomen
B. Never seen in the lung because of its excellent blood supply
D. Rapidly progressive
|An important characteristic of mycobacteria is that they are?
* A. Gram negative
B. Rapid growing (doubling time 15 minutes)
C. Acid fast
D. Alpha hemolytic
|A 42 year old woman who was complaining of shaking chills and fever went to the Salt Lake City Homeless clinic. She had enlarged lymph nodes in the right axilla. Upstream from the enlarged nodes was an ulcer on the top of the patients right hand. When carefully questioned, the patient said she remembered being bitten there by an insect resembling a horsefly, but with yellow stripes on its abdomen; Its what we used to call a deerfly, she added laconically. The patient denied any contact with rats or fleas. The patients disease was most likely to be:?
B. Ulcero-glandular tularemia
C. Pneumonic plague
D. Relapsing fever
|Each of the following statements concerning epidemic typhus is correct EXCEPT?
A. The disease is characterized by a rash that begins on the trunk and moves distally.
B. The recrudescent form of the disease is called Brill-Zinsser
C. The disease is caused by Rickettsia typhi
D. The causative organism is transmitted to humans by lice
|One of the key differences between amantidine/rimantidine and the newer neuraminidase inhibitor influenza virus drugs is?
A. drug allergy
B. antimetabolic effect on host cells due to lack of specificity for viral enzymes
C. rate of development of drug resistance
D. drug-drug interactions associated with competition for cytochrome P450 enzymes
|Which of the following best characterizes antiviral chemotherapy in comparison to bacterial chemotherapy?
A. Few drug targets, toxicity problematic
B. Sensitivity tests of limited value
C. Toxicity a minor problem, multiple enzymatic targets
D. Many more drug options are available to treat viral infections
|Legionella infection is more common in patients who?
A. Are smokers with COPD
B. Are diabetics
C. Are premature infants
D. Are patients on broad spectrum antibiotics?
|You receive a urine culture report from the laboratory on a 45 year old patient who is a quadriplegic with an indwelling urinary tract catheter. The urine culture is growing >100,000 oxidase positive gram negative bacilli. The most likely organism is?
A. E. coli
D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
|Influenza virus hemagglutinins play a significant role in which of the following phases of viral replication?
B. Virion Assembly
C. Release by budding
E. Production of mRNA
|A 20 year old college student is part of an archeological team traveling to northeastern Arizona to help excavate Indian ruins. One month after returning she develops a flu-like illness with cough, myalgias, and low grade fever. A chest x-ray shows a small localized infiltrate in the right mid lung field. An organism to consider would be?
|An elderly Tongan male was diagnosed with multiple myeloma (a form of cancer) and has been treated with chemotherapy agents for two months. He was then admitted to the hospital with new-onset asthma symptoms that became worse when he was treated with steroids. Many small larvae were found in his sputum and he was found to have a hyper-infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Which statement is false regarding Strongyloides?
A. Strongyloides is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia just like hookworm
B. The initial infection occurs when larvae penetrate the skin from the soil
C. Auto infection occurs when the ova hatch and mature in the intestinal tract and then penetrate the intestine to establish a persistent infection
D. Eosinophilia is present during the migrating phase of the life cycle
E. Recurrent bacterial infections can develop when bacteria are carried by the larvae into sterile areas of the body
|A 20 year old patient comes to the homeless clinic with a skin abscess on the right arm. A swab from the intact skin overlying this abscess grows coagulase negative staphylococci. An aspirate obtained sterilely with a needle and syringe grows Staphylococcus aureus. About these 2 organisms in this patient you can say?
A. Both are normal flora and contaminated the specimens sent to the lab
B. The staph aureus is a pathogen and the coagulase negative staph is not
C. The coagulase negative staphylococcus is a pathogen
D. The coagulase negative staphylococcus is an opportunistic pathogen
|A 22 year old diabetic with poor control of blood glucoses comes into clinic with a 2 month history of nasal congestion and low grade fever. Over the past 3 days he has also had a painful right eye-it hurts to look from side to side. In addition he feels that his vision is impaired now in that eye. On exam his right eye appears red and swollen and seems to be pushed forward. His nasal mucosa on that side appears dark and almost necrotic. You should be worried about?
A. A zygomycete infection
B. Toxic shock syndrome
|All of the following statements about the M-protein of Group A- Streptococci are correct EXCEPT?
A. The amino terminal portion (distal portion) is variable, accounting for over 80 distinct serotypes.
B. M proteins allow streptococci to resist phagocytosis.
C. Antibodies to M protein confer type-specific immunity.
D. M protein is the major virulence factor of Group A streptococci
E. M protein is the major constituent of the capsule of Group A streptococci
|The lesions of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients are very similar to the hemangiomatous nodules caused by?
A. Rickettsia prowazekii
B. Ehrlichia chaffeensis
C. Bartonella bacilliformis
D. Coxiella burnetii
|Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by?
A. JC virus
B. Pumuula virus
D. SV40 virus
|It is extremely difficult to eradicate staphylococcal infection in the presence of a foreign body. Thus, infected artificial joints and infected intravenous lines often must be removed in conjunction with optimal intravenous anti-staphylococcal therapy with oxacillin or nafcillin (sometimes in combination with rifampin) in order to eradicate such staphylococcal infections (and these attempts are not always successful). Staphylococcal infection of bone may persist for many years despite what should be optimal antimicrobial therapy. The most likely reason for this tenacity of staphylococcal osteomyelitis is:?
A. The Staphylococcal pilus gene is up-regulated by oxacillin
B. Fragments of dead bone, called "involucrum" may act as a foreign body, and may have to be removed for optimal eradication of the staphylococcal infection.
C. Staphylococci may be perceived by the patient's immune system as a positive factor, because the staphylococci produce an extracellular enzyme, obtundokinase, which makes the patient more alert.
D. Staphylococci are such an integral part of our normal flora that they are treated as "self" rather than "non-self", and no immune reaction to them occurs.
|A 44-year-old native Nigerian who has lived in the USA for 10 years returned to visit his family in Africa and now presents with a history of shaking chills, followed by high fever and then profuse sweating. He states that this is the most severe case of malaria he has ever had. His blood smear shows malaria organisms consistent with Plasmodium falciparum. Which of the following statements is false regarding P. falciparum?
A. His symptoms are more severe this time because he has lost some of the immunity that comes with frequent recurrences of malaria
B. Taking appropriate prophylactic medication has an 80-90% chance of preventing P. falciparum malaria
C. P. falciparum causes organ damage in the brain, lungs, and kidneys because of adhesion of infected red cells to the endothelium of the capillaries which impairs the microcirculation to these organs
D. P. falciparum gametocytes are ameboid shaped
E. Plasmodium falciparum has the highest mortality rate of the four malaria species
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Latest 20 Questions
Payment of time- barred debt is:
Consideration is defined in the Indian Contract Act,1872 in: (a) Section 2(f) (b) Section 2(e) (c) Section 2(g) (d) Section 2(d)
Which of the following is not an exception to the rule, "No consideration, No contract": (a) Natural love and affection (b) Compensation for involuntary services (c) Completed gift (d) Agency
Consideration must move at the desire of: (a) The promisor (b) The promisee (c) The promisor or any other party (d) Both the promisor and the promisee
An offer which is open for acceptance over a period of time is: (a) Cross Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Standing Offer (d) Implied Offer
Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
_________ amounts to rejection of the original offer. (a) Cross offer (b) Special offer (c) Standing offer (d) Counter offer
A advertises to sell his old car by advertising in a newspaper. This offer is caleed: (a) General Offer (b) Special Offer (c) Continuing Offer (d) None of the above
In case a counter offer is made, the original offer stands: (a) Rejected (b) Accepted automatically (c) Accepted subject to certain modifications and variations (d) None of the above
In case of unenforceable contract having some technical defect, parties (a) Can sue upon it (b) Cannot sue upon it (c) Should consider it to be illegal (d) None of the above
If entire specified goods is perished before entering into contract of sale, the contract is (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Voidable (d) Cancelled
______________ contracts are also caled contracts with executed consideration. (a) Unilateral (b) Completed (c) Bilateral (d) Executory
A offers B to supply books @ Rs 100 each but B accepts the same with condition of 10% discount. This is a case of (a) Counter Offer (b) Cross Offer (c) Specific Offer (d) General Offer
_____________ is a game of chance. (a) Conditional Contract (b) Contingent Contract (c) Wagering Contract (d) Quasi Contract
There is no binding contract in case of _______ as one's offer cannot be constructed as acceptance (a) Cross Offer (b) Standing Offer (c) Counter Offer (d) Special Offer
An offer is made with an intention to have negotiation from other party. This type of offer is: (a) Invitation to offer (b) Valid offer (c) Voidable (d) None of the above
When an offer is made to the world at large, it is ____________ offer. (a) Counter (b) Special (c) General (d) None of the above
Implied contract even if not in writing or express words is perfectly _______________ if all the conditions are satisfied:- (a) Void (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
A specific offer can be accepted by ___________. (a) Any person (b) Any friend to offeror (c) The person to whom it is made (d) Any friend of offeree
An agreement toput a fire on a person's car is a ______: (a) Legal (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal