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Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions. Eukaryotic micro-organisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms?all of which are microorganisms?are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on extraction or detection of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA sequences.
|Which of the following best characterizes antiviral chemotherapy in comparison to bacterial chemotherapy?
A. Few drug targets, toxicity problematic
B. Sensitivity tests of limited value
C. Toxicity a minor problem, multiple enzymatic targets
D. Many more drug options are available to treat viral infections
|A Chinese male has had right upper quadrant pain for the past 10 years. Workup for gallbladder disease with an ultrasound shows small linear organisms. O&P exam reveals the ovoid, flask shaped egg of Clonorchis sinensis. Which of the following statements is false regarding Clonorchis sinensis?
A. It is also called the oriental liver fluke
B. Man is a definitive host
C. This infection can best be treated with surgical removal of the gallbladder
D. There are two intermediate hosts - the snail and the fish
E. Long-term infection has been associated with cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile duct)
|Humans are the definitive host for Diphyllobothrium latum or the fish tapeworm which competes for Vitamin B12 with its human host. Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in an anemia with production of very large red blood cells, called macrocytic anemia. All of the following would prevent the spread of this disease but one. Which one would not be a method of prevention?
A. Avoid swimming in fresh waters that are endemic for Diphyllobothrium latum
B. Cook freshwater fish well before eating
C. Freeze fish that is going to be consumed raw which will kill the parasite
D. Provide sewage treatment plants that treat raw sewage before dumping it into fresh water
E. Avoid eating fresh water fish
|The most frequent cause of viral meningitis in the United States is?
C. California/Lacrosse virus
D. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
|In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation funded a physician to go throughout the Pacific Islands to decrease the incidence of hookworm. Each of the following but one would help decrease the incidence of this disease. Which one would not make any change in incidence of Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus?
A. Wearing shoes
B. Washing hands after using the bathroom
C. Using latrines for defecation
D. Treating those found to be infected
E. Establishing sewage treatment facilities
|An important characteristic of mycobacteria is that they are?
* A. Gram negative
B. Rapid growing (doubling time 15 minutes)
C. Acid fast
D. Alpha hemolytic
|On the same day the clinical laboratory identifies two strains of the same bacterial species. One of these strains has pili on the surface; the other does not. In terms of the clinical status of the two patients it is likely that?
A. Patient with the piliated strain is ill, the other patient is not
B. Patient with the piliated strain is not ill, the other patient is
C. Both patients are ill since pili do not correlate with virulence
D. Patient with the piliated strain is a child, the other patient is an adult
|The following statements are clearly true about enteroviruses EXCEPT?
A. There are many serotypes
B. They can cause a variety of diseases which imitate bacterial infection
C. They are an important cause of meningitis
D. They are an important cause of diarrhea
|Each of the following statements concerning epidemic typhus is correct EXCEPT?
A. The disease is characterized by a rash that begins on the trunk and moves distally.
B. The recrudescent form of the disease is called Brill-Zinsser
C. The disease is caused by Rickettsia typhi
D. The causative organism is transmitted to humans by lice
|A 45 year old woman is admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. On the second hospital day it is clear that she has had a myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, on the same day she develops acute diarrhea. A stool culture grows Salmonella. This infection is?
A. Hospital acquired
D. Community acquired
|Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by?
A. JC virus
B. Pumuula virus
D. SV40 virus
|Hepatitis A can be transmitted by?
A. Changing diapers on an infected baby
B. Having sex with someone who is infected
C. Eating cooked meat
D. Needle sticks injuries from infected patients
|The single most important characteristic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholera is?
A. Profound watery diarrhea
B. Severe abdominal pain
C. Massive bloody diarrhea
D. Renal insufficiency
|Legionella infection is more common in patients who?
A. Are smokers with COPD
B. Are diabetics
C. Are premature infants
D. Are patients on broad spectrum antibiotics?
|All of the following statements about the M-protein of Group A- Streptococci are correct EXCEPT?
A. The amino terminal portion (distal portion) is variable, accounting for over 80 distinct serotypes.
B. M proteins allow streptococci to resist phagocytosis.
C. Antibodies to M protein confer type-specific immunity.
D. M protein is the major virulence factor of Group A streptococci
E. M protein is the major constituent of the capsule of Group A streptococci
|A 44-year-old native Nigerian who has lived in the USA for 10 years returned to visit his family in Africa and now presents with a history of shaking chills, followed by high fever and then profuse sweating. He states that this is the most severe case of malaria he has ever had. His blood smear shows malaria organisms consistent with Plasmodium falciparum. Which of the following statements is false regarding P. falciparum?
A. His symptoms are more severe this time because he has lost some of the immunity that comes with frequent recurrences of malaria
B. Taking appropriate prophylactic medication has an 80-90% chance of preventing P. falciparum malaria
C. P. falciparum causes organ damage in the brain, lungs, and kidneys because of adhesion of infected red cells to the endothelium of the capillaries which impairs the microcirculation to these organs
D. P. falciparum gametocytes are ameboid shaped
E. Plasmodium falciparum has the highest mortality rate of the four malaria species
|This year there have been 7 travelers to eastern Africa that have contracted Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. They have all presented in the early stage of the disease with a chancre of the skin associated with cellulitis (red hot swelling) around the chancre. Which of the following is false regarding Trypanosoma brucei?
A. Progression of the disease is more rapid in rhodesiense than in gambiense
B. Early diagnosis allows for a more effective, safer medication that can be used before the parasite reaches the brain
C. Rhodesiense has multiple hosts while in gambiense, humans are the only host
D. Epidemics of African sleeping sickness have occurred by person to person spread
E. Both are transmitted by the Tsetse fly
|Which of the following statements regarding mycoplasmas is NOT correct?
A. Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living micro-organisms.
B. Mycoplasmas are resistant to cell wall active antibiotics.
C. Mycoplasmas are common commensals of the respiratory and urogenital tracts.
D. Mycoplasmas stain well with the Gram's stain.
E. Mycoplasmas grow slowly on enriched media.
|Which of the following pathogens causes invasive joint disease in immuno-compromised hosts?
A. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
B. Mycoplasma hominis
C. Ureaplasma urealyticum
D. Chlamydia pneumoniae
E. None of the above
|The major virulence factor of Haemophilus influenzae type b is?
A. Its surface pili
B. Its surface polysaccharides
C. Its cell wall
D. Its cell membrane
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Latest 20 Questions
An offer which is open for acceptance over a period of time is:
(a) Cross Offer
(b) Counter Offer
(c) Standing Offer
(d) Implied Offer
Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
_________ amounts to rejection of the original offer. (a) Cross offer (b) Special offer (c) Standing offer (d) Counter offer
A advertises to sell his old car by advertising in a newspaper. This offer is caleed: (a) General Offer (b) Special Offer (c) Continuing Offer (d) None of the above
In case a counter offer is made, the original offer stands: (a) Rejected (b) Accepted automatically (c) Accepted subject to certain modifications and variations (d) None of the above
In case of unenforceable contract having some technical defect, parties (a) Can sue upon it (b) Cannot sue upon it (c) Should consider it to be illegal (d) None of the above
If entire specified goods is perished before entering into contract of sale, the contract is (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Voidable (d) Cancelled
______________ contracts are also caled contracts with executed consideration. (a) Unilateral (b) Completed (c) Bilateral (d) Executory
A offers B to supply books @ Rs 100 each but B accepts the same with condition of 10% discount. This is a case of (a) Counter Offer (b) Cross Offer (c) Specific Offer (d) General Offer
_____________ is a game of chance. (a) Conditional Contract (b) Contingent Contract (c) Wagering Contract (d) Quasi Contract
There is no binding contract in case of _______ as one's offer cannot be constructed as acceptance (a) Cross Offer (b) Standing Offer (c) Counter Offer (d) Special Offer
An offer is made with an intention to have negotiation from other party. This type of offer is: (a) Invitation to offer (b) Valid offer (c) Voidable (d) None of the above
When an offer is made to the world at large, it is ____________ offer. (a) Counter (b) Special (c) General (d) None of the above
Implied contract even if not in writing or express words is perfectly _______________ if all the conditions are satisfied:- (a) Void (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
A specific offer can be accepted by ___________. (a) Any person (b) Any friend to offeror (c) The person to whom it is made (d) Any friend of offeree
An agreement toput a fire on a person's car is a ______: (a) Legal (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
"Holiday Packages" announced as an advertisement are an example of _________: (a) Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Invitation to Offer (d) None of the above
A match fixing contract between a player and a broker is a: (a) Valid Contract (b) Unenforceable Contract (c) Void Contract (d) Illegal Contract
When a bookseller sells a book on cash payment then it is called as ___________: (a) Unilateral Contract (b) Bilateral Contract (c) Executed Contract (d) Executory Contract
____________ agreements are created by situation: (a) Written (b) Oral (c) Void (d) Implied