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Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
|Barbiturates increase the rate of metabolism of:
All of the above
|Which of the following hypnotic drugs is more likely to cause cumulative and residual effects?
|Benzoil peroxide is effective in
|Epinephrine produces all of the following effects EXCEPT:
Positive inotropic and chronotropic actions on the heart (beta1 receptor)
Increase peripheral resistance (alfa receptor)
Predominance of alfa effects at low concentration
Skeletal muscle blood vessel dilatation (beta2 receptor)
|All of the hypnotic drugs induce:
Increase the duration of REM sleep
Decrease the duration of REM sleep
Do not alter the duration of REM sleep
Increase the duration of slow wave sleep
|What is the proportion of NaCl required to render a 1.5% solution of drug isotonic with blood plasma? The freezing point of 1% w/v solution of drug is -0.122?C and that of NaCl is -0.576?C
|Indicate the drug, which is a direct-acting both alfa- and beta-receptor agonist:
|Which of the following agents is an alfa1 alfa2 beta1 beta2 receptor agonist?
|Which of the following drugs has both alfa1-selective and beta-blocking effects?
|Which of the following sympathomimetics is related to short-acting topical decongestant agents?
|Which of the following hypnotics is preferred in patients with limited hepatic function?
|Which of the following beta receptor antagonists is preferable in patients with asthma, diabetes or peripheral vascular
|Metoprolol and atenolol are the :
Are members of the beta1-selective group
Are nonselective beta antagonists
Have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Have an anesthetic action
|During cardiopulmonary resusitaton intravenous calcium glouconate is indicated under all for the follwing circumstances except
After I min. of arrest routinely
Calcium channel blocker toxicity
|Nonselective alfa-receptor antagonists are most useful in the treatment of:
|Which is long acting and potent
|An example of haemopoietic growth factor is
platelet derived growth factor
epidermal growth factor
|Which of the following hypnotic drugs increases the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme systems?
|which of the following antitubercular drug doese not required dose adjustment in renal failure
|The principal mechanism of phentolamine-induced tachycardia is:
Antagonism of presynaptic alfa2 receptors enhances norepinephrine release, which causes cardiac stimulation via unblocked beta receptors
Direct effect on the heart by stimulation of beta1 receptors
Inhibition of transmitter reuptake at noradrenergic synapses
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Payment of time- barred debt is:
Consideration is defined in the Indian Contract Act,1872 in: (a) Section 2(f) (b) Section 2(e) (c) Section 2(g) (d) Section 2(d)
Which of the following is not an exception to the rule, "No consideration, No contract": (a) Natural love and affection (b) Compensation for involuntary services (c) Completed gift (d) Agency
Consideration must move at the desire of: (a) The promisor (b) The promisee (c) The promisor or any other party (d) Both the promisor and the promisee
An offer which is open for acceptance over a period of time is: (a) Cross Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Standing Offer (d) Implied Offer
Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
_________ amounts to rejection of the original offer. (a) Cross offer (b) Special offer (c) Standing offer (d) Counter offer
A advertises to sell his old car by advertising in a newspaper. This offer is caleed: (a) General Offer (b) Special Offer (c) Continuing Offer (d) None of the above
In case a counter offer is made, the original offer stands: (a) Rejected (b) Accepted automatically (c) Accepted subject to certain modifications and variations (d) None of the above
In case of unenforceable contract having some technical defect, parties (a) Can sue upon it (b) Cannot sue upon it (c) Should consider it to be illegal (d) None of the above
If entire specified goods is perished before entering into contract of sale, the contract is (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Voidable (d) Cancelled
______________ contracts are also caled contracts with executed consideration. (a) Unilateral (b) Completed (c) Bilateral (d) Executory
A offers B to supply books @ Rs 100 each but B accepts the same with condition of 10% discount. This is a case of (a) Counter Offer (b) Cross Offer (c) Specific Offer (d) General Offer
_____________ is a game of chance. (a) Conditional Contract (b) Contingent Contract (c) Wagering Contract (d) Quasi Contract
There is no binding contract in case of _______ as one's offer cannot be constructed as acceptance (a) Cross Offer (b) Standing Offer (c) Counter Offer (d) Special Offer
An offer is made with an intention to have negotiation from other party. This type of offer is: (a) Invitation to offer (b) Valid offer (c) Voidable (d) None of the above
When an offer is made to the world at large, it is ____________ offer. (a) Counter (b) Special (c) General (d) None of the above
Implied contract even if not in writing or express words is perfectly _______________ if all the conditions are satisfied:- (a) Void (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
A specific offer can be accepted by ___________. (a) Any person (b) Any friend to offeror (c) The person to whom it is made (d) Any friend of offeree
An agreement toput a fire on a person's car is a ______: (a) Legal (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal