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Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

This description, often called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and interaction with each other.

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Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: Difference between RISC and CISC

Answer: RISC-Means Reduced Instruction Set Computer.a Risc
system has reduced number of instructions and more
importantly it is load store architecture were
pipelining can be implemented easily.Eg.ATMEL AVR

CISC-Means Complex instruction set architecure.A CISC
system has complex instructions such as direct
addition between data in two memory locations.Eg.8085

Submitted by H.Ranga samy ( Source:
Question: How many processors are there in a pentium microprocessor? In Sparc?

Question: What are set up time & hold time constraints? What do they signify? Which one is critical for estimating maximum clock frequency of a circuit?

Answer: Suppose your flip-flop is positive edge triggered. time for which data should be stable prior to positive edge clock is called setup time constraint .

Time for which data should be stable after the positive edge of clock is called as hold time constraint.

if any of these constraints are violated then flip-flop will enter in meta stable state, in which we cannot determine the output of flip-flop.

there are two equation:
1. Tcq + Tcomb> Tskew + Thold
2. Tcq + Tcomb< Source:
Question: How do you make programs portable on unix and Dos under such circumstances?

Question: Can recursive programs be written in C++, Write a recursive program to calculate factorial in C++.

Question: Why is monitor?s screen blank when I start up my computer?

Answer: due to opearting system . repair os or reinstall os and check. Source:
Question: Give a circuit to divide frequency of clock cycle by two?

Answer: You can divide the frequency of a clock by just implementing T Flip flop.

Give clock as clock input and tie the T input to logic 1. Source:
Question: Give two ways of converting a two input NAND gate to an inverter.

Answer: One way is shorting the two inputs of the NAND gate and passing the input.

truth table:

A B output
1 1 0
0 0 1

The second way is passing the input to only one input(say A) of the NAND gate.Since the other input(say B) is floating, it is always logic one.

truth table:
A B output
1 1 0
0 1 1 Source:
Question: What is testing? What is unit testing, integration testing, etc?

Question: What is waterfall model, prototype model?

Question: What is Finite Automata ?

Question: What is a kernel,shell?

Answer: A shell is a program that presents an interface to various operating system functions and services. The shell is so called because it is an outer layer of interface between the user and the innards of the operating system (the kernel). Kernel is the one which manages all the resources of the Operating System.

Submitted by vipul gupta ( Source:
Question: What is a Turing machine?

Answer: A Turing machine is a theoretical computing machine invented by Alan Turing (1937) to serve as an idealized model for mathematical calculation. A Turing machine consists of a line of cells known as a "tape" that can be moved back and forth, an active element known as the "head" that possesses a property known as "state" and that can change the property known as "color" of the active cell underneath it, and a set of instructions for how the head should modify the active cell and move the tape. A Source:
Question: Give the truth table for a Half Adder. Give a gate level implementation of the same.


0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1


For SUM, The two inputs A and B are given to XOR gate.

For Carry, The two inputs A and B are given to AND gate Source:
Question: Is DOS a real time OS?

Answer: DOS is not a RTOS (real time Operating system), however MS DOS can be used with certain APIs to achieve the RTOS functionality. For example, the RT Kernel (Real Time Kernel) which can be used with MS DOs to achieve the RTOS functionality. Other example is of Tics. Tics is delivered as a hardware support file for MS DOS.

Submitted by vipul gupta ( Source:
Question: What is atomicity?

Question: Draw a Transmission Gate-based D-Latch?

Answer: The Transmission-Gate's input is connected to the D_LATCH data input (D), the control input to the Transmission-Gate is connected to the D_LATCH enable input (EN) and the Transmission-Gate output is the D_LATCH output (Q) Source:
Question: Is RISC always fast?

Back to Hardware Design Interview Questions and Answers page Question : What are the different Adder circuits you studied?

Answer: Adders are generally of five types:
1) Ripple Carry Adder:
The Ripple carry adder(RCA) consists of a building block named Half
Adder(HA) which is cascaded to form a Full Adder(FA). These building
blocks HAs and FAs are also the building blocks of all types of
adders.The n full adders are cascaded to form n bit RCA.
The full adder has three input pins(input Ai,input Bi,carryin Ci) and
two output pins(Sum and Ci+1).Its equations are:
Question: What is binary search, traversal, hashing?

Answer: Binary Search: Search a sorted array by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half. Begin with an interval covering the whole array. If the value of the search key is less than the item in the middle of the interval, narrow the interval to the lower half. Otherwise narrow it to the upper half. Repeatedly check until the value is found or the interval is empty.

Hashing provides a fast way to search a large, unsorted data set at the cost of extra memory. It is described as "directly re Source:

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Latest 20 Questions
An offer which is open for acceptance over a period of time is: (a) Cross Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Standing Offer (d) Implied Offer
Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
_________ amounts to rejection of the original offer. (a) Cross offer (b) Special offer (c) Standing offer (d) Counter offer
A advertises to sell his old car by advertising in a newspaper. This offer is caleed: (a) General Offer (b) Special Offer (c) Continuing Offer (d) None of the above
In case a counter offer is made, the original offer stands: (a) Rejected (b) Accepted automatically (c) Accepted subject to certain modifications and variations (d) None of the above
In case of unenforceable contract having some technical defect, parties (a) Can sue upon it (b) Cannot sue upon it (c) Should consider it to be illegal (d) None of the above
If entire specified goods is perished before entering into contract of sale, the contract is (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Voidable (d) Cancelled
______________ contracts are also caled contracts with executed consideration. (a) Unilateral (b) Completed (c) Bilateral (d) Executory
A offers B to supply books @ Rs 100 each but B accepts the same with condition of 10% discount. This is a case of (a) Counter Offer (b) Cross Offer (c) Specific Offer (d) General Offer
_____________ is a game of chance. (a) Conditional Contract (b) Contingent Contract (c) Wagering Contract (d) Quasi Contract
There is no binding contract in case of _______ as one's offer cannot be constructed as acceptance (a) Cross Offer (b) Standing Offer (c) Counter Offer (d) Special Offer
An offer is made with an intention to have negotiation from other party. This type of offer is: (a) Invitation to offer (b) Valid offer (c) Voidable (d) None of the above
When an offer is made to the world at large, it is ____________ offer. (a) Counter (b) Special (c) General (d) None of the above
Implied contract even if not in writing or express words is perfectly _______________ if all the conditions are satisfied:- (a) Void (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
A specific offer can be accepted by ___________. (a) Any person (b) Any friend to offeror (c) The person to whom it is made (d) Any friend of offeree
An agreement toput a fire on a person's car is a ______: (a) Legal (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
"Holiday Packages" announced as an advertisement are an example of _________: (a) Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Invitation to Offer (d) None of the above
A match fixing contract between a player and a broker is a: (a) Valid Contract (b) Unenforceable Contract (c) Void Contract (d) Illegal Contract
When a bookseller sells a book on cash payment then it is called as ___________: (a) Unilateral Contract (b) Bilateral Contract (c) Executed Contract (d) Executory Contract
____________ agreements are created by situation: (a) Written (b) Oral (c) Void (d) Implied
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