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Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

This description, often called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and interaction with each other.

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Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Hardware and Software Design Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: Difference between RISC and CISC

Answer: RISC-Means Reduced Instruction Set Computer.a Risc
system has reduced number of instructions and more
importantly it is load store architecture were
pipelining can be implemented easily.Eg.ATMEL AVR

CISC-Means Complex instruction set architecure.A CISC
system has complex instructions such as direct
addition between data in two memory locations.Eg.8085

Submitted by H.Ranga samy ( Source:
Question: How many processors are there in a pentium microprocessor? In Sparc?

Question: Give a circuit to divide frequency of clock cycle by two?

Answer: You can divide the frequency of a clock by just implementing T Flip flop.

Give clock as clock input and tie the T input to logic 1. Source:
Question: What is Finite Automata ?

Question: What are set up time & hold time constraints? What do they signify? Which one is critical for estimating maximum clock frequency of a circuit?

Answer: Suppose your flip-flop is positive edge triggered. time for which data should be stable prior to positive edge clock is called setup time constraint .

Time for which data should be stable after the positive edge of clock is called as hold time constraint.

if any of these constraints are violated then flip-flop will enter in meta stable state, in which we cannot determine the output of flip-flop.

there are two equation:
1. Tcq + Tcomb> Tskew + Thold
2. Tcq + Tcomb< Source:
Question: What is a Turing machine?

Answer: A Turing machine is a theoretical computing machine invented by Alan Turing (1937) to serve as an idealized model for mathematical calculation. A Turing machine consists of a line of cells known as a "tape" that can be moved back and forth, an active element known as the "head" that possesses a property known as "state" and that can change the property known as "color" of the active cell underneath it, and a set of instructions for how the head should modify the active cell and move the tape. A Source:
Question: Draw a Transmission Gate-based D-Latch?

Answer: The Transmission-Gate's input is connected to the D_LATCH data input (D), the control input to the Transmission-Gate is connected to the D_LATCH enable input (EN) and the Transmission-Gate output is the D_LATCH output (Q) Source:
Question: Is RISC always fast?

Question: How do you make programs portable on unix and Dos under such circumstances?

Question: Give two ways of converting a two input NAND gate to an inverter.

Answer: One way is shorting the two inputs of the NAND gate and passing the input.

truth table:

A B output
1 1 0
0 0 1

The second way is passing the input to only one input(say A) of the NAND gate.Since the other input(say B) is floating, it is always logic one.

truth table:
A B output
1 1 0
0 1 1 Source:
Question: Compare the no. of bytes in unix and Dos for long, char, short, int.

Question: What is a real time system?

Answer: A real time system is a computer system that updates the information at the same rate it receives it. It is of two types, hard real time system and a soft real time system.

Submitted by vipul gupta ( Source:
Question: Can recursive programs be written in C++, Write a recursive program to calculate factorial in C++.

Back to Hardware Design Interview Questions and Answers page Question : What are the different Adder circuits you studied?

Answer: Adders are generally of five types:
1) Ripple Carry Adder:
The Ripple carry adder(RCA) consists of a building block named Half
Adder(HA) which is cascaded to form a Full Adder(FA). These building
blocks HAs and FAs are also the building blocks of all types of
adders.The n full adders are cascaded to form n bit RCA.
The full adder has three input pins(input Ai,input Bi,carryin Ci) and
two output pins(Sum and Ci+1).Its equations are:
Question: Why is monitor?s screen blank when I start up my computer?

Answer: due to opearting system . repair os or reinstall os and check. Source:
Question: What is indexing when talking about databases?

Question: How do you detect a sequence of "1101" arriving serially from a signal line?

Answer: Sequence detector : A sequence detector gives an output of 1 on detecting the given sequence else the output is zero.

Ex : if the given sequence to be detected is 111
and input stream is 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
the output should be 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1.

One of the different possible ways to detect a sequence is using a Mealy type FSM.

Using the following table the State machine can be designed.
since the number of bits in the sequence 1101 is Source:
Question: Design a divide-by-3 sequential circuit with 50% duty circle.

Answer: Take a smiths counter with 3 f/f's
that is to say with 6 states(2*3)
now double the i/p clock frequency to the counter
the o/p of the 3rd f/f is divide by 6 of the i/p with 50% duty cycle
so effectively u got divide by 3 freq with 50% duty cycle Source:
Question: What is waterfall model, prototype model?

Question: What is a kernel,shell?

Answer: A shell is a program that presents an interface to various operating system functions and services. The shell is so called because it is an outer layer of interface between the user and the innards of the operating system (the kernel). Kernel is the one which manages all the resources of the Operating System.

Submitted by vipul gupta ( Source:

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Latest 20 Questions
Payment of time- barred debt is: (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Illegal (d) Voidable
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Consideration must move at the desire of: (a) The promisor (b) The promisee (c) The promisor or any other party (d) Both the promisor and the promisee
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Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
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