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Embryology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Embryology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Embryology is the study of development of an embryo from the stage of ovum fertilization through to the fetal stage. The ball of dividing cells that results after fertilization is termed an ?embryo? for eight weeks and from nine weeks after fertilization, the term used is ?fetus.? Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology is the study of congenital disorders that occur before birth.

Try Embryology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Embryology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Embryology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: How is the yolk sac formed? What is the function of the yolk sac?

Answer: The yolk sac is formed from the covering of the vitellus by some cells originated from the primitive gut.

The yolk sac stores vitellus, the main nourishment source of nonplacental embryos.

Image Diversity: yolk sac Source:
Question: What is the difference between amnion and chorion?

Answer: Amnion is the membrane that covers the embryo. Chorion is the membrane that covers the amnion, the yolk sac, and the allantois. The space delimited by the chorion and the amnion is called amniotic cavity and it is filled with aminiotic fluid. The amniotic cavity has the functions of preventing desiccation of the embryo and of protecting it against mechanical shocks.

Image Diversity: amnion chorion Source:
Question: Is there exchange of cells between the mother and the fetus through the placenta?

Answer: Under normal conditions, there is no passage of cells across the placenta during gestation. The placenta has a smooth mucosa separating the richly vascularized region in contact with the mother?s endometrium from the umbilical cord in contact with the fetal blood. This barrier is known as placental barrier. Although permeable to some substances (selective permeability), the placental barrier forbids the passage of cells.

Image Diversity: umbilical cord placental barrier Source:
Question: What is the cell division during the first stage of the embryonic development called? How is this stage characterized?

Answer: The cell division in the first stage of the embryonic developments is called cleavage, or segmentation. In this stage, mitosis occurs from the zygote forming the new embryo. Source:
Question: What is the function of the vitellus in the vertebrate egg? How are these eggs classified according to the amount of vitellus within them?

Answer: Vitellus (yolk) is the nutritive material that accumulates in the cytoplasm of the egg (zygote) with the function of nourishing the embryo. According to the amount of vitellus in them, the vertebrate eggs are classified as oligolecithal (little yolk), centrolecithal, or heterolecithal (more yolk diffusely distributed) and telolecithal (more yolk concentrated in one end of the egg). Source:
Question: After the morula stage what is the next stage? What is the morphological feature that defines that stage?

Answer: After passing the morula stage in which the embryo was a compact mass of cells, the next stage is the blastula stage. In the blastula stage, the compactness is lost and an internal cavity filled with fluid appears inside, the blastocele.

Image Diversity: blastula Source:
Question: What are the three types of germ layers that form tissues and organs in animals?

Answer: The three germ layers are the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm.

Image Diversity: germ layers Source:
Question: What is notochord? How is this structure formed?

Answer: Notochord is a rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the embryo and gives birth to the vertebral column in vertebrates. It is formed by differentiation of mesodermal cells. Source:
Question: What are histogenesis and organogenesis?

Answer: Histogenesis is the process of tissue formation in the embryonic development. Organogenesis is the process of organ formation. Before histogenesis and organogenesis the primitive embryonic structures have been already formed: germ layers, neural tube, notochord, coeloms, somites. Source:
Question: From which germ layer do blood cells originate? What are other organs and tissues made from that germ layer?

Answer: Blood cells have mesodermal embryonic origin. Other organs made from mesoderm are covering serous membranes like the pericardium, the peritoneum and the pleura, muscles, cartilages, dermis, adipose tissue, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, gonads, blood and lymph vessels, bones. Source:
Question: Which illustrates a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?

Answer: Winning the lottery after playing many times. Source:
Question: How does the embryo turn from gastrula into neurula? How is the neural tube formed? What is the embryonic origin of the nervous system in vertebrates?

Answer: The neurula stage is characterized by the appearing of the neural tube along the dorsal region of the embryo. The growing of mesoderm in that region induces the differentiation of ectodermal cells just above. These cells then differentiate forming the neural tube. Therefore, the origin of the nervous system is the ectoderm (the same germ layer that gives birth to the skin).

Image Diversity: neurula Source:
Question: After the neurula stage and from its ventral portion to the dorsal how can the morphology of the embryo be described?

Answer: In a schematic longitudinal section of the embryo after the neurula stage, the outermost layer of cells is the ectoderm. In the ventral region comes the archenteron tube formed of endodermal cells. In both sides of the embryo, coeloms delimited by mesoderm are present. In the central region above the archenteron and in the middle of the coeloms there is the notochord. In the dorsal region just above the notochord lies the neural tube. Source:
Question: Notochord is a rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the embryo and gives birth to the vertebral column in vertebrates. It is formed by differentiation of mesodermal cells.

Answer: Coeloms are cavities delimited by mesoderm. Coeloms originate the cavities where the internal organs of the body are located, like the pericardial cavity, the peritoneal cavity, and the pleural cavity. Besides coelomate animals, there are acoelomate animals, like platyhelminthes, and pseudocoelomate animals, like nematodes.

Image Diversity: coelom Source:
Question: What is gastrulation? How during gastrulation are the first two germ layers formed? Which are these germ layers?

Answer: Gastrulation is the process through which a portion of the blastula wall undergoes invagination inside the blastocele forming a tube called archenteron (primitive intestine). The cells of the inner side of the tube form the endoderm (germ layer) and the cells of the outer side form the ectoderm (another germ layer). It is the beginning of the tissue differentiation in the embryonic development. Source:
Question: What are the animal pole and the vegetal pole of the vertebrate egg?

Answer: The animal pole of a telolecithal egg is the portion of the egg with little vitellus, it is opposite to the vegetal pole that is the region where the yolk is concentrated.

Image Diversity: animal and vegetal poles Source:
Question: What are extra embryonic membranes?

Answer: Extra embryonic membranes are membranous structures that appear paralleling the embryo and play important roles in the embryonic development. They form from the embryo but do not become part of the individual organism after its birth. Source:
Question: What is the cell division process directly related to the embryonic growth?

Answer: The embryonic growth depends directly on mitosis. Through this type of cell division, the zygote divides itself giving birth to a series of cells that by mitosis too compose differentiated tissues and organs until the formation of a complete individual.
Question: What are twins? Genetically what are the two types of twins that can be generated?

Answer: Twins are simultaneously generated (within the mother?s uterus) offspring. Twins classify according to zygosity as monozygotic or as dizygotic twins.

Monozygotic twins, also known as identical twins, are those originated from one single fertilized ovum (therefore from one single zygote); monozygotic twins are genetically identical, i.e., they have identical genotypes and are necessarily of the same sex. Dizygotic twins, also known as fraternal twins, are those generated from two different Source:
Question: How are animals classified according to the germ layers present in their embryonic development?

Answer: Cnidarians are diploblastic, i.e., they present only endoderm and ectoderm. With the exception of poriferans, all remaining animals are triploblastic. Poriferans do not present differentiated tissue organization and so they do not classify regarding germ layers (although sometimes they are mentioned as diploblastic). Source:

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