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Immunology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Immunology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Immunology deals with physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease as well as malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders like allergies, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders. Immunology is the study of the immune system, which protects us from infection. There are three main ways in which the immune system contributes to disease: Activation, Immunodeficiency and Hypersensitivity.

Try Immunology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Immunology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Immunology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: What is an antigen and antibody interaction?

Answer: Antigen-antibody interaction is similar to an enzyme substrate interaction. The reaction between antigen and antibody occurs in two stages. Primary stage is the initial interaction of antigen-antibody without any visible effect .The reaction is rapid and obeys the general law of thermodynamics and physical chemistry.

The primary stage is followed by the secondary stage leading to demonstrate events such as precipitation, lysis of cells, neutralization of toxins and fixation of compliments Source:
Question: What is counter current immuno electrophoresis?

Answer: This technique involves the simultaneous electrophoresis of antigen and antibody in the gel in the opposite direction resulting in precipitation of point where there is optimum concentration of antigen-antibody.

This method produces visible precipitin with in 30 minutes and is 10 times more sensitive than the standard double diffusion technique. Source:
Question: What is the full form of ELISA?

Answer: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay. Source:
Question: What are basophils?

Answer: They are found in blood and in tissues. They contain several hydrolytic enzymes and amines like histamine, serotonin etc. Source:
Question: What is the significance of indirect ELISA?

Answer: It is used for the detection of the presence of serum antibodies against immuno deficiency virus (HIV, the causative agent of AIDS). Source:
Question: What is a myeloma protein?

Answer: It is a monoclonal immunoglobulin produced from a myeloma cell. Source:
Question: What are null cells?

Answer: The lymphocytes that are devoid of markers for T and B- cells are called null cells. Source:
Question: Give the classification of null cells?

Answer: Null cells are classified into three types.

1. Natural killer cells
2. Antibody dependant cellular cytotoxic cells
3. Lymphokine activated killer cells. Source:
Question: What is cell-mediated immune response?

Answer: It is based on T cells. These T cells are of two types.
T helper cells (TH)
T cytotoxic cells. (TC)

T helper cells interact with antigen MCH II present on APC (Antigen presenting cell) and secrete cytokines. These activate B cells, Tc cells and other phagocytic cells; these activated phagocytic cells kill microorganisms like protozoa and bacteria. Source:
Question: Briefly describe about size of a molecule, which make a substance antigenic.

Answer: Molecule size of an antigen has a direct relation to antigenesity. Very large molecules such as haemocyanin (6.7 million Daltons) and thymoglobulin (669 kd) are highly antigenic where as low molecular weight compounds whose molecular weight is less than 10,000 Daltons are poor antigenic. Ex: Insulin and histones Source:
Question: What is the host defense mechanism shown if the infection is through proliferation?

Answer: Phagocytosis compliment mediated lysis localized inflammatory response. Source:
Question: What is an iso antigen?

Answer: It is produced only by some members of a species but not the others. These are capable of eliciting immune response in the individuals that lack the antigen. Source:
Question: What is humoral immune response?

Answer: It is based on antibodies. It is conferred to non-immune individuals by administration of serum antibodies from an immune individual. Antibodies bind to the antigens and facilitate their elimination by forming clusters through cross-linking. Source:
Question: What are the forces that are responsible for antigen-antibody reactions?

Answer: The process that holds antigen-antibody together is called non-specific interactions. Inter molecular forces may be classified into four-

1. Electrostatic bonds
2. Hydrogen bonds
3. Hydrophobic interactions
4. Vander Val interactions Source:
Question: Immature macrophages, which are present in the blood stream, are called as?

Answer: Immature macrophages, which are present in the blood stream, are called as Monocytes. Source:
Question: What is the disadvantage of direct immuno fluorescence?

Answer: A separate fluorescent conjugate have to be prepared against each antigen to be tested. Source:
Question: Give some general features of antigen-antibody interaction.

Answer: 1. The reaction is specific and antigen combines only with its corresponding antibody and vice versa.
2. Entire molecules react but not the fragment.
3. There is no denaturation of antigen or antibody during the reaction.
4. The combination of antigen ? antibody is firm but reversible. The firmness of the reaction is influenced by the affinity and avidity of the reaction.
5. Both antigens and antibodies participate in the formation of agglutination and precipitation reactions.
6. Source:
Question: Name some features of a secondary immune response that distinguish it from primary immune response

Answer: Secondary immune response requires an amplified population of memory cells. Response is more rapid compared to primary immune response. Source:
Question: What is a cross-reaction?

Answer: Antigen-antibody reactions are specific, but in some cases antibody elicited by one antigen can cross react with another antigen. This reaction is called as cross-reaction and the antigen that produces cross-reaction is called as cross-reactive antigen. Cross-reaction is due to the presence of two or more antigenic determinants on the related antigen. Source:
Question: What are the three distinct phases that a precipitation shows?

Answer: The three distinct phases are
Ascending part called ?zone of antibody excess?.
A peak called ?zone of equivalence?.
A descending part called ?zone of antigen excess?. Source:

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