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Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
COOLINTERVIEW.COM SCIENCE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS METALLURGY INTERVIEW QUESTIONS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS - LEARNING MODE

Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is the art of extracting metals from ore and forms an essential part of the mining effort. Metallurgical engineers play an important role in the development of metalliferous minerals used daily in many products such as alarms, kettles, cars, etc. The metallurgical engineer is trained in the processes and methods for the reclamation and processing of ore and mineral resources. After the process of purification, the metallurgical engineer combines science, mathematical and engineering principles to extract various kinds of metal from the ore. The optimally correct metal for each application must be created.

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Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: Are the grain boundaries a continuation of regular lattice structure from one grain to another? Explain.

Answer: They are called boundaries because this is where one crystal interacts with another. The lattice structure does not continue across the interface without mismatch. While there is some lattice, interaction or sharing it is not complete and there are many defects associated with the boundaries. The degree of mismatch determines if the boundary is a high angle boundary (lots of mismatch) or a low angle boundary (very little mismatch) A tilt boundary is an example of a low angle boundary. This is al Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is proeutectoid ferrite and cementite?

Answer: If you are not familiar with the Fe-C binary phase diagram, please try to download it before reading the answer below, because without such prior knowledge, it might be difficult to figure out my answer. Using keywords "Fe-C", "phase", and "diagram" in search engines like Google, you can easily find this diagram.

As you probably know, in the iron-carbon binary phase diagram, which in addition to some other purposes is used to predict phase transformations in steels and cast irons, there, Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Can 1026 steel be welded?

Answer: Weldability of Iron-Carbon alloys is a function of their carbon content and decreases as their carbon increases. Plain carbon steels can be roughly categorized into 3 main groups: 1- low carbon plain steels which have less than 0.2wt% carbon and are the most wieldable and heat treatable carbon steels, 2- medium carbon plain steels with a carbon content of 0.2-0.5wt%C, and 3- high carbon plain steels with more than 0.5wt%C. The 1026 steel is a medium carbon steel (10 at the beginning implies its Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Does the extrusion process for A355 AND A356 alloy effect on the amount of impact energy?

Answer: Yes, it does. I am not an expert in these things, but I do know that the parameters of the extrusion process directly affect the crystalline matrix of the alloy, which in turn governs the physical characteristics of the alloy. As the differences can be quite significant, I would recommend checking with qualified references for pertinent details. I know that quenching and max temperatures are big issues. Good luck, sorry I could not be of greater assistance. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: How to calculate heat affected zone in weld?

Answer: Heat affected zone is measured regarding the microstructure changes in the weld. For example in steels, this is the area around the weld zone, which has undergone a transformation. In other words, this is the area, which had been austenitized. For calculating the HAZ after welding, for steels, it is better to macroetech the section of the weld HAZ can be easily recognized by the contrast it makes with the base metal and the weld metal. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: How would a salt and water solution clean a penny but a vinegar and salt solution will not clean a penny? What is the cause of this?

Answer: I have been thinking about this overnight but I am not a chemist so I am unsure of the reactions. I do know that the penny gets shiny when you remove oxygen and impurities like sulfur from the surface. So lets reason together on this....The salt breaks down into hydrogen and chlorine in the water and produces a slightly acidic, HCl, solution. This breaks down the copper oxide pretty well. I do know the chlorine works well to clean of the copper oxide, I use "comet cleaner" with chlorine to clean Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Why we are doing post heating in alloy steel welding?

Answer: The preheating is application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating helps reduce hardness in the metal.

In addition, the application of heat to the weld immediately after welding is post-heating .The Post heating helps reduce stress in the weld metal. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: A plain carbon steel contains 45 wt% of proeutectoid ferrite. What is its average carbon content in weight percent? I know that you need to use a tie line in the phase diagram, but my book does not really give a good example to go by

Answer: The calculation is so easy if you have the iron-carbon diagram in your mind. Proeutectoid ferrite is ferrite formed before eutectoid transformation. At 0.8 wt% carbon, we got 100% austenite before the transformation and at 0.02wt% carbon, we got 100% ferrite, and between these two values of carbon content, we have different amounts of proeutectoid ferrite.

Considering that, we have x wt% carbon we calculate proeutectoid ferrite using the tie line.

Proeutectoid ferrite amount = (0.8 Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is the strongest metal?

Answer: If there is any specific metal with the highest strength, I got no information about that. Everyday a new high technology material with unique characteristics is introduced. Now, the concentration is on composite materials. I guess the highest strength must belong to a composite material likely with a titanium alloy or as the matrix. Alternatively, maybe a super alloy is the strongest one. I got no more information. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: We make aluminum moulds by press casting, can u suggest any thing so that the moulds should shine after casting?

Answer: Shininess of castings depends on the surface quality of cast parts. Casting surface finish is always a function of mold surface and characteristics. The selection of mold materials and the accuracy of mold finish maintained in premium casting operations ensure that specified requirements are met. Sometimes there is the possibility of increasing surface finish of castings by increasing their surface tension. This is done for aluminum alloys by allowing formation of oxide inclusions, the most impo Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Is it possible to use metallurgical inverted microscope to other designation?

Answer: A microscope is a microscope for most purposes. First, make sure the light source on the scope is useful in seeing whatever it is you want to see. Certain items are seen well in certain lights. The second thing, as I am sure you have already realized, is that you will have a tough time determining where on the sample you are looking, as it is up side down. For this reason, I even prefer a non-inverted scope even for metallurgical tasks. In summary, if you are ok with the sample being upside down Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: When using mercury to recover very, fine gold from ore, what is the best way to separate the gold laden mercury from the ore?

Answer: A centrifugal system would certainly separate the mercury assuming you could maintain a fluidized bed and that there were not large differences in the sizes of the particles in the slurry. Depending on the volume involved, a vibratory table might be better. There are many other methods, but I would need to know the relative size / volume / solid-liquid ratio information in order to make a useful recommendation. You need to take special precautions in any case to preclude the release of mercury i Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Which method has more procity in cast part? Which method has more strength in cast part?

Answer: The sand casting will have more porosity in the final product. The die cast will also have higher strength both because of the lower degree of porosity and because of the finer grain size. While I have not been directly involved in the production of cylinder blocks there are a number of reasons for the preference of die-casting versus sand casting. Die-casting provided a finer finish, greater tolerance, better repeatability, and generally higher quality casting. They used sand casting of the iro Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Is it possible to determine the heat treatment condition in Stainless Steel (ASTM A 479 Gr XM-19) by checking the microstructure?

Answer: Clearly, you have some specific alloy issues possibly relating to an engineering or design problem you are working on. It appears to me then you are seeking some free consultation. I will cover some basics but you need to be talking to a local metallurgical engineer who can help with the specifics of your problem.

First, you mention two different alloys A-479 is a type 405 ferritic alloy, 11.5 - 14.5 Cr, 0.8 C, and no nickel. This single-phase BCC alloy is not heat treatable. The XM-19 al Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: How can you separate gold from mercury?

Answer: 1. Gold (Au) and mercury (Hg) are two separate metals. Therefore, from pure mercury you cannot extract Gold.

2. Amalgamation is better suited to ores in which the gold occurs in the free and cores state. Fine particles of Gold are better treated by Cyanidation.

3. Gold dissolves in aqua regia. Aqua Regia is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It can dissolve gold, which single acids alone cannot do. Here we see that each of the acids separately has no effect on the gold Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What affect would increasing the charpy impact toughness on an object have on the surface of an object it strikes if all else remains the same? Would it cause more damage to the object it strikes?

Answer: Charpy toughness is a measure of the metals ability to resist tearing or to absorb energy during an impact. Generally, we achieve that by altering the microstructure to be more ductile. In the quenched and tempered alloys (steels) for example, that involves tempering to convert the hard brittle martensite to softer more ductile bainite or a ferrite carbide mixture. Therefore, we are making a softer metal; therefore, if it affects another object it would tend to deform more. There would be less d Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Why is steel vital in the construction of an aircraft?

Answer: In the aircraft business, carbon steels provide the airframe structure, landing gear, and by alloying with nickel, chromium, and other elements it makes up most of the aircraft gas turbine engine materials. Titanium is used in some cases for the aircraft structure because it is less dense but also much more expensive. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Is nickel considered a non-sparking metal?

Answer: Monel and nickel form almost identical spark streams. The sparks are small in volume and orange in color. The sparks form wavy streaks with no sparklers.

So is not as bright as sparks of ferrous alloys. Therefore, that is a way to identify nickel and monel. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: When we do cardonitriding or casehardening operation for a plain carbon steel the case depth, hardness & microstructure are not alike why and what are the basic thing, which makes such a difference.

Answer: Usually that will depend on the time and temperature, as well as chemical composition of the furnace atmosphere you are using.

If these variables are not kept well controlled, they may cause very different results. Please note that time and temperature are correlated, the more temperature, the less time and lesser diffusion control. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is the chemical composition of ceramic and what is its atomic density?

Answer: There are literally thousands of different ceramic products. They have widely varying atomic structures and characteristics. Source: CoolInterview.com

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