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Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is the art of extracting metals from ore and forms an essential part of the mining effort. Metallurgical engineers play an important role in the development of metalliferous minerals used daily in many products such as alarms, kettles, cars, etc. The metallurgical engineer is trained in the processes and methods for the reclamation and processing of ore and mineral resources. After the process of purification, the metallurgical engineer combines science, mathematical and engineering principles to extract various kinds of metal from the ore. The optimally correct metal for each application must be created.

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Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Metallurgy Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: How can you separate gold from mercury?

Answer: 1. Gold (Au) and mercury (Hg) are two separate metals. Therefore, from pure mercury you cannot extract Gold.

2. Amalgamation is better suited to ores in which the gold occurs in the free and cores state. Fine particles of Gold are better treated by Cyanidation.

3. Gold dissolves in aqua regia. Aqua Regia is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It can dissolve gold, which single acids alone cannot do. Here we see that each of the acids separately has no effect on the gold Source:
Question: Does the extrusion process for A355 AND A356 alloy effect on the amount of impact energy?

Answer: Yes, it does. I am not an expert in these things, but I do know that the parameters of the extrusion process directly affect the crystalline matrix of the alloy, which in turn governs the physical characteristics of the alloy. As the differences can be quite significant, I would recommend checking with qualified references for pertinent details. I know that quenching and max temperatures are big issues. Good luck, sorry I could not be of greater assistance. Source:
Question: What is widman statten structure?

Answer: Primary Widman statten ferrite either directly grows from the austenite grain surfaces, whereas secondary Widmanst?atten ferrite develops from any allotriomorphic ferrite that may be present in the microstructure.

Widmanst?atten ferrite can form at temperatures close to the Ae3 temperature and hence can occur at very low driving forces; the under cooling needed amounts to a free energy change of only 50 J mol. This is much less than required to sustain diffusion less transformation. Becau Source:
Question: Is there any way through hardening and anodizing some type of aluminum, it could be as hard as steel? I have hardened steel rollers that run up and down on a ramp along with spring pressure. Alternatively, if you are familiar with snowmobiles, the rollers run on the helix on the secondary clutch.

Answer: Aluminum, while it is incredible for some applications due to it being lightweight, is a very soft and weak metal. There really is not any way to get it any where near the hardness of steel. What people are doing for applications requiring lightweight, but strong materials is going with some new age alloys, mostly consisting of titanium and nickel. Source:
Question: When using mercury to recover very, fine gold from ore, what is the best way to separate the gold laden mercury from the ore?

Answer: A centrifugal system would certainly separate the mercury assuming you could maintain a fluidized bed and that there were not large differences in the sizes of the particles in the slurry. Depending on the volume involved, a vibratory table might be better. There are many other methods, but I would need to know the relative size / volume / solid-liquid ratio information in order to make a useful recommendation. You need to take special precautions in any case to preclude the release of mercury i Source:
Question: What affect would increasing the charpy impact toughness on an object have on the surface of an object it strikes if all else remains the same? Would it cause more damage to the object it strikes?

Answer: Charpy toughness is a measure of the metals ability to resist tearing or to absorb energy during an impact. Generally, we achieve that by altering the microstructure to be more ductile. In the quenched and tempered alloys (steels) for example, that involves tempering to convert the hard brittle martensite to softer more ductile bainite or a ferrite carbide mixture. Therefore, we are making a softer metal; therefore, if it affects another object it would tend to deform more. There would be less d Source:
Question: What is or what characterize the thermodynamic state of metal (structure of metal)?

Answer: In the solid state, metals have a crystalline structure made of metal atoms, which are drawn together by low force vanderwaals interactions. The electrons form a cloud around the atom structure and migrate from one point to the other constantly.

The structured state of the atoms allows for low entropy in this state. Depending on the metal, several different structures may form, and one metal may have more than one structure at different temperatures, since its entropy depends on atom vibr Source:
Question: What is the grain size of lead as an element and as an alloy such as lead tin alloy?

Answer: Grain size in alloys and pure elements is a function of their solidification rate. The higher the solidification rate, the smaller the grains are. Determination of grain size in pure elements is rather difficult since it is difficult to locate the grain boundaries; there is no segregation and composition distinction in the case of micro structural features in pure elements. However, in the case of alloys such as Pb-Sn alloys, composition difference between the primary dendrites and the eutectic Source:
Question: Is it possible to use metallurgical inverted microscope to other designation?

Answer: A microscope is a microscope for most purposes. First, make sure the light source on the scope is useful in seeing whatever it is you want to see. Certain items are seen well in certain lights. The second thing, as I am sure you have already realized, is that you will have a tough time determining where on the sample you are looking, as it is up side down. For this reason, I even prefer a non-inverted scope even for metallurgical tasks. In summary, if you are ok with the sample being upside down Source:
Question: Are the grain boundaries a continuation of regular lattice structure from one grain to another? Explain.

Answer: They are called boundaries because this is where one crystal interacts with another. The lattice structure does not continue across the interface without mismatch. While there is some lattice, interaction or sharing it is not complete and there are many defects associated with the boundaries. The degree of mismatch determines if the boundary is a high angle boundary (lots of mismatch) or a low angle boundary (very little mismatch) A tilt boundary is an example of a low angle boundary. This is al Source:
Question: Why we are doing post heating in alloy steel welding?

Answer: The preheating is application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating helps reduce hardness in the metal.

In addition, the application of heat to the weld immediately after welding is post-heating .The Post heating helps reduce stress in the weld metal. Source:
Question: What are the properties and application of manganese steel?

Answer: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, consisting of iron phase and iron carbides. Crude steel produced from iron contains an undesirable amount of oxygen and some sulphur. Manganese plays a key role because of two important properties: its ability to combine with sulphur and its powerful deoxidation capacity. When there is insufficient manganese, the sulphur combines with iron to form a low melting point sulphide, which melts at hot rolling temperatures, causing a surface cracking phenomenon kno Source:
Question: Is nickel considered a non-sparking metal?

Answer: Monel and nickel form almost identical spark streams. The sparks are small in volume and orange in color. The sparks form wavy streaks with no sparklers.

So is not as bright as sparks of ferrous alloys. Therefore, that is a way to identify nickel and monel. Source:
Question: What is the strongest metal?

Answer: If there is any specific metal with the highest strength, I got no information about that. Everyday a new high technology material with unique characteristics is introduced. Now, the concentration is on composite materials. I guess the highest strength must belong to a composite material likely with a titanium alloy or as the matrix. Alternatively, maybe a super alloy is the strongest one. I got no more information. Source:
Question: Why is steel vital in the construction of an aircraft?

Answer: In the aircraft business, carbon steels provide the airframe structure, landing gear, and by alloying with nickel, chromium, and other elements it makes up most of the aircraft gas turbine engine materials. Titanium is used in some cases for the aircraft structure because it is less dense but also much more expensive. Source:
Question: What is the difference between Stainless steel and Alloy Steel?

Answer: Stainless steels have at least 11 to 12% chromium in the alloy. Why 11 to 12% minimum you might ask? That much is required to provide a continuous layer of protective chromium oxide on the surface. Alloy steel just means that there are additional elements added to the iron-carbon. So to answer your second question; Yes, stainless steels are by definition alloy steels. Source:
Question: We make aluminum moulds by press casting, can u suggest any thing so that the moulds should shine after casting?

Answer: Shininess of castings depends on the surface quality of cast parts. Casting surface finish is always a function of mold surface and characteristics. The selection of mold materials and the accuracy of mold finish maintained in premium casting operations ensure that specified requirements are met. Sometimes there is the possibility of increasing surface finish of castings by increasing their surface tension. This is done for aluminum alloys by allowing formation of oxide inclusions, the most impo Source:
Question: How would a salt and water solution clean a penny but a vinegar and salt solution will not clean a penny? What is the cause of this?

Answer: I have been thinking about this overnight but I am not a chemist so I am unsure of the reactions. I do know that the penny gets shiny when you remove oxygen and impurities like sulfur from the surface. So lets reason together on this....The salt breaks down into hydrogen and chlorine in the water and produces a slightly acidic, HCl, solution. This breaks down the copper oxide pretty well. I do know the chlorine works well to clean of the copper oxide, I use "comet cleaner" with chlorine to clean Source:
Question: What is the minimum temperature for stress relieving of ASTM A 519 Gr.4130 material and please tell us where we can find the location.

Answer: Stress relieving of alloy steels (like 4130) has no temperature outlined in the spec of the material. However, it is common practice to stress relieve 4130 between 1050 and 1200 F. This is high enough to relieve the stress with out being hot enough that the material has an austenitic phase change, which occurs around 1350 F. Source:
Question: What is the chemical composition of ceramic and what is its atomic density?

Answer: There are literally thousands of different ceramic products. They have widely varying atomic structures and characteristics. Source:

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