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Ecology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
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Ecology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of" [A]) is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, geography, and Earth science. Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment; it seeks to understand the vital connections between plants and animals and the world around them.

Try Ecology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Ecology Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Ecology Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: What is protocooperation?

Answer: Protocooperation is the ecological interaction in which both participants benefit and that is not obligatory for their survival. Protocooperation is a harmonious (positive) interspecific ecological interaction. Examples of protocooperation are: the action of the spur-winged plover that using its beak eats residuals from crocodile teeth; the removal of ectoparasites from the back of bovines by some birds that eat the parasites; the hermit crab that live inside shells over which sea anemones live Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is biodiversity?

Answer: Biological diversity is the variety of species of living beings of an ecosystem. In ecosystems, more biodiverse, like tropical forests, a great variety of plants, microorganisms, and animals live; in ecosystems less biodiverse, like deserts, there are less variety of living beings.

Image Diversity: variety of life on Earth Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Which terrestrial vertebrate group is extremely rare in deserts?

Answer: Amphibians are terrestrial vertebrates extremely rare in desertic environments (although there are few species adapted to this type of ecosystem). Amphibians are rare in deserts because they do not have permeable skin and so they easily lose water by evaporation and desiccate. They also need an aquatic environment to reproduce, since their fecundation is external and their larva is water-dependent. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is pollution?

Answer: Pollution is the contamination of an ecosystem by factors that are harmful for the equilibrium of its biotic or abiotic constituents.

Environmental Issues: pollution Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is ecological succession?

Answer: Ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities that live in a ecosystem during a given time period.

Image Diversity: ecological succession Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: How does the vegetal stratification of an ecosystem influence the biological diversity?

Answer: The vegetal stratification of an ecosystem, like the strata of the Amazon Rainforest, creates vertical layers with peculiar abiotic and biotic factors, dividing the ecosystem into several different environments. Therefore, in the superior layer near the crowns of big trees, the exposition to light, rain, and wind is greater but moisture is lower comparing to the inferior layers. As one goes down the strata, the penetration of light diminishes and moisture increases. Regarding the biotic factors, Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is the respective importance of water, carbon, and nitrogen for the living beings?

Answer: Water is the main solvent of the living beings and it is necessary practically for all biochemical reactions, including as reagent of photosynthesis. Many properties of water are very important for life.

Carbon is the main chemical element of organic molecules; carbon dioxide is also reagent of photosynthesis and product of the energetic metabolism of the living beings.

Nitrogen is a fundamental chemical element of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins that in their turn are Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are the analyses provided by the study of human age pyramids?

Answer: The study of human age pyramids can provide the following analysis:

Proportion of individuals in economically active age,

Proportion of elderly (indicating the quality of the pension and health systems), proportion of children and youth (indicates need for job generation and educational services), reproductive profile (shows the population growth tendency), and postnatal survival rate (indicates quality of the health system, hygiene conditions, nutrition, and poverty), longevity pr Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are fossil fuels?

Answer: Fossil fuels, like oil, gas, and coal, form when organic material is preserved from the complete action of decomposers, generally buried deep and under pressure during millions of years. Under such conditions, the organic material transforms into hydrocarbon fuels.

Fossil fuels are natural reservatory of carbon. When oxygen is present, these fuels can be burned and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are released to the atmosphere. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: Into which type of energy is the light used in photosynthesis transformed.

Answer: The luminous energy used in photosynthesis is transformed into chemical energy. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are intraspecific and interspecific ecological interactions?

Answer: Intraspecific ecological interactions are those between individuals of the same species. Interspecific ecological interactions are ecological interactions between individuals of different species. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is mutualism?

Answer: Mutualism is the ecological interaction in which both participants benefit and that is obligatory for their survival. Mutualism is a harmonious (positive) ecological interaction. Mutualism is also known as symbiosis. Examples of mutualism are: the association between microorganisms that digest cellulose and the ruminants or insects within which they live; the lichens, formed by algae or cyanobacteria that make organic material for the fungi and absorb water with their help; nitrifying bacteria o Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: How is energy transferred along a food chain?

Answer: The energy flux along a food chain is always unidirectional, from the producers to the decomposers. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is the climax stage of an ecological succession?

Answer: The climax stage is the stage of the ecological succession in which the community of an ecosystem becomes stable and does not undergo significant changes. In the climax community practically all ecological niches are explored and the biodiversity is the greater possible. In this stage the biomass, the photosynthesis rate and the cellular respiration reach their maximum levels and thus the net primary production (NPP = organic material made by the producers - organic material consumed in the cell Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are autotrophic beings? What are heterotrophic beings?

Answer: Autotrophic beings are those that can produce their own food, i.e., that make organic material from inorganic compounds. Heterotrophic beings are those that need to incorporate organic material to nourish them. Therefore, heterotrophs depend on the production of the autotrophs. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What is Ecology?

Answer: Ecology is the field of Biology that studies the relations between living beings and between living beings and the environment. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are age pyramids?

Answer: Age pyramids are graphical representations in form of superposed rectangles each representing the number of individuals included in age ranges into which a population is divided. Generally, the lower age ranges are represented more to the bottom of the pyramid, always below higher ranges, and the variable dimension that represents the number of individuals is the width (there are age pyramids however, in which the variable dimension is the height).

Population Ecology - Image Diversity: ag Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are the major terrestrial biomes?

Answer: The major terrestrial biomes are tundras, taigas (or boreal forest), temperate forests, tropical forests, grasslands and deserts. Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the temperate forests?

Answer: In the temperate forest, deciduous trees predominate. Mammals are found in great number, like bears and deers.

Biomes - Image Diversity: temperate forests
Source: CoolInterview.com
Question: What are the factors that for influencing photosynthesis also interfere with the gross primary productivity?

Answer: Mainly water and light, but also mineral salts, temperature, and carbon dioxide are factors that interfere with the gross primary productivity. Source: CoolInterview.com

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