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Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Manual testing is the process of manually testing software for defects. It requires a tester to play the role of an end user and use most of all features of the application to ensure correct behavior. In Manual Testing , Testers manually execute test cases without using any automation tools. Manual testing is the most primitive of all testing types and helps find bugs in the software system. Manual testing is a testing process that is carried out manually in order to find defects without the usage of tools or automation scripting.

Try Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: What is 'Software Testing'?

Answer: Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg, 'if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen'). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should. It is oriented to 'detecti Source:
Question: What should be done after a bug is found?

Answer: The bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn't create problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place, it should encapsulate these processes. A variety of commercial problem-tracking/management software tools are available (see the 'Tools' section for web resources with listings of such to Source:
Question: What if there is not enough time for thorough testing?

Answer: Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused.
Since it's rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possible combination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong, risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. This requires judgement skills, common sense, and experience. Considerations can include:
? Which functionality is most important to the project's intended purpose.
? Which functionali Source:
Question: What is a 'test plan'?

Answer: A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach, and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the 'why' and 'how' of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful but not so thorough that no one outside the test gro Source:
Question: What steps are needed to develop and run software tests?

Answer: The following are some of the steps to consider:
1. Obtain requirements, functional design, and internal design specifications and other necessary documents
2. Obtain budget and schedule requirements
3. Determine project-related personnel and their responsibilities, reporting requirements, required standards and processes (such as release processes, change processes, etc.)
4. Identify application's higher-risk aspects, set priorities, and determine scope and limitations of tests< Source:
Question: What makes a good QA or Test manager?

Answer: A good QA, test, or QA/Test(combined) manager should:
1. be familiar with the software development process
2. be able to maintain enthusiasm of their team and promote a positive atmosphere, despite
3. what is a somewhat 'negative' process (e.g., looking for or preventing problems)
4. be able to promote teamwork to increase productivity
5. be able to promote cooperation between software, test, and QA engineers
6. have the diplomatic skills needed to promote improvements Source:
Question: How can Software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?

Answer: By implementing QA processes slowly over time, using consensus to reach agreement on processes, and adjusting and experimenting as an organization grows and matures, productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection, panics and burn-out will decrease, and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based proc Source:
Question: How can World Wide Web sites be tested?

Answer: Web sites are essentially client/server applications - with web servers and 'browser' clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between html pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, javascript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as cgi scripts, database interfaces, logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc.). Additionally, there are a wide varie Source:
Question: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?

Answer: Well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well-designed this can simplify test design. Source:
Question: What is software 'quality'?

Answer: Quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. However, quality is obviously a subjective term. It will depend on who the 'customer' is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. A wide-angle view of the 'customers' of a software development project might include end-users, customer acceptance testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the development organization& Source:
Question: What is an inspection?

Answer: An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough', typically with 3-8 people including a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing, not to fix anything. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document. Most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection me Source:
Question: What if the software is so much bugs it can't really be tested at all?

Answer: The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc.) managers should be notified, and provided with some document Source:
Question: What if the project is not big enough to justify extensive testing?

Answer: Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed. The tester might then do adhoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis. Source:
Question: What is verification? validation?

Answer: Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings. Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The term 'IV & V' refers to Independent Verification and Validation. Source:
Question: What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed QA processes are impossible?

Answer: This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than:
? Hire good people
? Management should 'ruthlessly prioritize' quality issues and maintain focus on the customer
? Everyone in the organization should be clear on what 'quality' means to the customer Source:
Question: How can it be known when to stop testing?

Answer: This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex, and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Common factors in deciding when to stop are:
? Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.)
? Test cases completed with certain percentage passed
? Test budget depleted
? Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point
? Bug rate falls below a certain level
? Beta or alpha te Source:
Question: What makes a good test engineer?

Answer: A good test engineer has a 'test to break' attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people is useful. Previous software development experience can be helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software develo Source:
Question: What's the role of documentation in QA?

Answer: Critical. QA practices should be documented such that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals, etc. should all be documented. There should ideally be a system for easily finding and obtaining documents and determining what documentation will have a particular piece of information. Change management for documentation should be used if possible. Source:
Question: What is a 'test case'?

Answer: A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier, test case name, objective, test conditions/setup, input data requirements, steps, and expected results.
Note that the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application, since it requires completely thinking throug Source:
Question: How does a client/server environment affect testing?

Answer: Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients, data communications, hardware, and servers. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. Additionally, load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. There are commercial tools to assist with such testing.


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