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Windows Operating System Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Windows Operating System Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Microsoft Windows (or simply Windows) is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. It consists of several families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry.

Try Windows Operating System Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Windows Operating System Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Windows Operating System Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: Why thread is called as a lightweight process?

Answer: It is called light weight process to emphasize the fact that a thread is like a process but is more efficient and uses fewer resources( n hence "lighter")and they also share the address space.
Question: Explain briefly about, processor, assembler, compiler, loader, linker and the functions executed by them.

Answer: Processor:--A processor is the part a computer system that executes instructions .It is also called a CPU
Assembler: -- An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language.
Compiler: --- A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular Source:
Question: Why are page sizes always powers of 2?

Answer: Recall that paging is implemented by breaking up an address into a page and offset number. It is most efficient to break the address into X page bits and Y offset bits, rather than perform arithmetic on the address to calculate the page number and offset. Because each bit position represents a power of 2, splitting an address between bits
results in a page size that is a power of 2. Source:
Question: What are different tasks of Lexical Analysis?

Answer: The purpose of the lexical analyzer is to partition the input text, delivering a sequence of comments and basic symbols. Comments are character sequences to be ignored, while basic symbols are character sequences that correspond to terminal symbols of the grammar defining the phrase structure of the input Source:
Question: What is the difference between unix and windows?

Answer: Unix and Windows use completely different paradigms for run-time loading of code. Before you try to build a module that can be dynamically loaded, be aware of how your system works.

In Unix, a shared object (.so) file contains code to be used by the program, and also the names of functions and data that it expects to find in the program. When the file is joined to the program, all references to those functions and data in the file's code are changed to point to the actual locations i Source:
Question: Describe different job scheduling in operating systems.

Answer: Scheduling is the activity of the deciding when process will receive the resources they request.
FCFS: --- FCSFS stands for First Come First Served. In FCFS the job that has been waiting the longest is served next.
Round Robin Scheduling: ---Round Robin scheduling is a scheduling method where each process gets a small quantity of time to run and then it is preempted and the next process gets to run. This is called time-sharing and gives the effect of all the processes running at the same t Source:
Question: What is starvation and aging?

Answer: Starvation: Starvation is a resource management problem where a process does not get the resources it needs for a long time because the resources are being allocated to other processes.
Aging: Aging is a technique to avoid starvation in a scheduling system. It works by adding an aging factor to the priority of each request. The aging factor must increase the request?s priority as time passes and must ensure that a request will eventually be the highest priority request (after it has waited lo Source:
Question: Define Demand Paging, Page fault interrupt, and Trashing?

Answer: Demand Paging: Demand paging is the paging policy that a page is not read into memory until it is requested, that is, until there is a page fault on the page.
Page fault interrupt: A page fault interrupt occurs when a memory reference is made to a page that is not in memory. The present bit in the page table entry will be found to be off by the virtual memory hardware and it will signal an interrupt.
Trashing: The problem of many page faults occurring in a short time, called ?page thrashin Source:
Question: Common Functions of Interrupts?

Answer: ->Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains the addresses of all the service routines.
->Interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction.
->Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interrupt.
->A trap is a software-generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request.
->An operating system is interrupt dr Source:
Question: Difference between Logical and Physical Address Space?

Answer: ->The concept of a logical address space that is bound to a separate physical address space is central to proper memory management.
Logical address ? generated by the CPU; also referred to as virtual address.
Physical address ? address seen by the memory unit.
->Logical and physical addresses are the same in compile-time and load-time address-binding schemes; logical (virtual) and physical addresses differ in execution-time address-binding scheme Source:
Question: Condition for deadlock occurrence?

Answer: Deadlock can arise if four conditions hold simultaneously.
Mutual exclusion: only one process at a time can use a resource.
Hold and wait: a process holding at least one resource is waiting to acquire additional resources held by other processes.
No preemption: a resource can be released only voluntarily by the process holding it, after that process has completed its task.
Circular wait: there exists a set {P0, P1, ?, P0} of waiting processes such that P0 is waiting for a resource th Source:
Question: Explain the difference between microkernel and macro kernel?

Answer: Micro-Kernel: A micro-kernel is a minimal operating system that performs only the essential functions of an operating system. All other operating system functions are performed by system processes.

Monolithic: A monolithic operating system is one where all operating system code is in a single executable image and all operating system code runs in system mode. Source:
Question: Under what circumstances do page faults occur? Describe the actions taken by the operating system when a page fault occurs?

Answer: A page fault occurs when an access to a page that has not been brought into main memory takes place. The operating system verifies the memory access, aborting the program if it is invalid. If it is valid, a free frame is located and I/O is requested to read the needed page into the free frame. Upon completion of I/O, the process table and
page table are updated and the instruction is restarted. Source:
Question: What is multi tasking, multi programming, multi threading?

Answer: Multi programming: Multiprogramming is the technique of running several programs at a time using timesharing.
It allows a computer to do several things at the same time. Multiprogramming creates logical parallelism.

The concept of multiprogramming is that the operating system keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously. The operating system selects a job from the job pool and starts executing a job, when that job needs to wait for any i/o operations the CPU is switched to another job. Source:
Question: Explain Segmentation with paging?

Answer: Segments can be of different lengths, so it is harder to find a place for a segment in memory than a page. With segmented virtual memory, we get the benefits of virtual memory but we still have to do dynamic storage allocation of physical memory. In order to avoid this, it is possible to combine segmentation and paging into a two-level
virtual memory system. Each segment descriptor points to page table for that segment.This give some of the advantages of paging (easy placement) with some of t Source:
Question: Compare Linux credit based algorithm with other scheduling algorithms?

Answer: For the conventional time ?shared processes, Linux uses a prioritized, credit-based algorithm. Each process possesses a certain number of scheduling credits; when a new task must be chosen to run, the process with most credits is selected. Every time that a timer interrupt occurs, the currently running process loses one credit; when its credits reaches zero, it is suspended and another process is chosen. If no runnable processes have any credits, then Linux performs a recrediting operation, addi Source:
Question: Why do multi-tasking operating systems in a single user machines today?

Answer: The need for multi-tasking operating systems including Unix, Linux, Windows xp , 2000 etc. in a single user machines is for simultaneous access to many applications. For example while using internet explorer wants attach some document file(.doc) it is not updated then he needs to open the Ms-Word, edit it and save it then attach it and simultaneously he can open the pdf file with acrobat reader for referring some digitized book etc. And can search for some information with google it is possible Source:
Question: What is a Safe State and its? use in deadlock avoidance?

Answer: When a process requests an available resource, system must decide if immediate allocation leaves the system in a safe state
->System is in safe state if there exists a safe sequence of all processes.
->Sequence <P1, P2? Pn> is safe if for each Pi, the resources that Pi can still request can be satisfied by currently available resources + resources held by all the Pj, with j<I.
If Pi resource needs are not immediately available, then Pi can wait until all Pj have finished. Source:
Question: what are the different Dynamic Storage-Allocation methods?

Answer: How to satisfy a request of size n from a list of free holes?
First-fit: Allocate the first hole that is big enough.
Best-fit: Allocate the smallest hole that is big enough; must search entire list, unless ordered by size. It produces the smallest leftover hole.
Worst-fit: Allocate the largest hole; must also search entire list. Produces the largest leftover hole.
First-fit and best-fit are better than worst-fit in terms of speed and storage utilization. Source:
Question: Why paging is used?

Answer: Paging is solution to external fragmentation problem which is to permit the logical address space of a process to be noncontiguous, thus allowing a process to be allocating physical memory wherever the latter is available. Source:

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Latest 20 Questions
Payment of time- barred debt is: (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Illegal (d) Voidable
Consideration is defined in the Indian Contract Act,1872 in: (a) Section 2(f) (b) Section 2(e) (c) Section 2(g) (d) Section 2(d)
Which of the following is not an exception to the rule, "No consideration, No contract": (a) Natural love and affection (b) Compensation for involuntary services (c) Completed gift (d) Agency
Consideration must move at the desire of: (a) The promisor (b) The promisee (c) The promisor or any other party (d) Both the promisor and the promisee
An offer which is open for acceptance over a period of time is: (a) Cross Offer (b) Counter Offer (c) Standing Offer (d) Implied Offer
Specific offer can be communicated to__________ (a) All the parties of contract (b) General public in universe (c) Specific person (d) None of the above
_________ amounts to rejection of the original offer. (a) Cross offer (b) Special offer (c) Standing offer (d) Counter offer
A advertises to sell his old car by advertising in a newspaper. This offer is caleed: (a) General Offer (b) Special Offer (c) Continuing Offer (d) None of the above
In case a counter offer is made, the original offer stands: (a) Rejected (b) Accepted automatically (c) Accepted subject to certain modifications and variations (d) None of the above
In case of unenforceable contract having some technical defect, parties (a) Can sue upon it (b) Cannot sue upon it (c) Should consider it to be illegal (d) None of the above
If entire specified goods is perished before entering into contract of sale, the contract is (a) Valid (b) Void (c) Voidable (d) Cancelled
______________ contracts are also caled contracts with executed consideration. (a) Unilateral (b) Completed (c) Bilateral (d) Executory
A offers B to supply books @ Rs 100 each but B accepts the same with condition of 10% discount. This is a case of (a) Counter Offer (b) Cross Offer (c) Specific Offer (d) General Offer
_____________ is a game of chance. (a) Conditional Contract (b) Contingent Contract (c) Wagering Contract (d) Quasi Contract
There is no binding contract in case of _______ as one's offer cannot be constructed as acceptance (a) Cross Offer (b) Standing Offer (c) Counter Offer (d) Special Offer
An offer is made with an intention to have negotiation from other party. This type of offer is: (a) Invitation to offer (b) Valid offer (c) Voidable (d) None of the above
When an offer is made to the world at large, it is ____________ offer. (a) Counter (b) Special (c) General (d) None of the above
Implied contract even if not in writing or express words is perfectly _______________ if all the conditions are satisfied:- (a) Void (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
A specific offer can be accepted by ___________. (a) Any person (b) Any friend to offeror (c) The person to whom it is made (d) Any friend of offeree
An agreement toput a fire on a person's car is a ______: (a) Legal (b) Voidable (c) Valid (d) Illegal
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