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Struts Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Struts Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode

Apache Struts is an open-source web application framework for developing Java EE web applications. It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture.

Try Struts Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode

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Struts Interview Questions & Answers - Learning Mode
Try Struts Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode
Question: What is the purpose of tiles-def.xml file, file, validation.xml file?

Answer: 1. tiles-def.xml

tiles-def.xml is used as a configuration file for an appliction during tiles development
You can define the layout / header / footer / body content for your View.


<definition name="siteLayoutDef" path="/layout/thbiSiteLayout.jsp">
<put name="title" value="Title of the page" />
<put name="header" value="/include/thbiheader.jsp" />
<put name="footer" value="/include/thbifooter.jsp" />
Question: What we will define in Struts-config.xml file. And explain their purpose?

Answer: In struts-config.xml we define Date Sources / Form Beans / Global Exceptions / Global Forwards / Action Mappings / Message Resources / Plug-ins

Example :

<!-- Date Sources -->
<data-source autoCommit="false" description="First Database Config" driverClass="" maxCount="4" minCount="2" password="admin" url="jdbc: mysql://localhost/ARTICLEDB" user="admin">
<!-- Form Beans -->
< Source:
Question: Who will run the execute method in struts?

Answer: Request Processor. Source:
Question: What is the difference between ActionForm and DynaActionForm

Answer: # The DynaActionForm bloats up the Struts config file with the xml based definition. This gets annoying as the Struts Config file grow larger.

# The DynaActionForm is not strongly typed as the ActionForm. This means there is no compile time checking for the form fields. Detecting them at runtime is painful and makes you go through redeployment.

# ActionForm can be cleanly organized in packages as against the flat organization in the Struts Config file.

# ActionForm were desi Source:
Question: How to call ejb from Struts?

Answer: We can call EJB from struts by using the service locator design patteren or by Using initial context with create home object and getting return remote referenc object.

Submitted by Pankaj Kumar ( )

Question: What is DispatchAction?

Answer: DispatchAction is specialized child of Struts Action class. It combines or group the methods that can further access the bussiness logic at a single place. The method can be anyone from CRUD [Create,Retrieve,Update or Delete] or it can be security check one like autheniticate user etc.
This class apart from having thread-safe execute method also can have user-defined methods.

In struts-config.xml files following changes are required for Dispatch action to work:

<act Source:
Question: Explain about Struts ?

Answer: Apache is used for developing Java web applications. It has garnished huge popularity because open source web framework. It encourages developers to implement MVC architecture. It became a top priority project within the Apache Foundation and it is now known as Jakarta Struts. Source:
Question: In struts why we use jsp as presentation layer? can we use servlet as presentation layer?

Answer: 1. We can seperate the business logic from presentation logic

2.It facilitates to write the java code inside a html environment

if we use servlets then we need to write the html tags inside out.write() number of times. it is not possible in all cases and it combines the businesslogic and presentation logic which reduces security
Question: In struts, if any changes are made to before the request reaches to actionservlet, where you do the changes?

Answer: In struts the first to recieve the request is Actionservlet. So, there is no chance for you to make changes before Source:
Question: What is struts flow? Explain in detail

Answer: Struts is a open source implementation of MVC design pattern to develop large scale web applications.Struts framework makes it easier to design realible,scalable web applications in java.Struts is not only thread safe but also thread dependent.It instantiates each action once and allows others to be threaded through the original object.Struts reduces the for redundant jsp's.ActionForm stratagy reduces the need of sub class hierarchy.

Struts is a light weight package.It consists of 5 Source:
Question: How do i configure web.xml using with struts.

Answer: Sturts framework use 2 types of configuration files: web.xml & struts-cofig.xmlConfiguaring web.xml for Struts is:2- steps are involved in this process1)Add .tld file in the web.xml. Eg: if you are using html file add strtus-html.tld in /WEB-INF/struts-html.tld/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld2) Configuring Action Servlet which wil recieve all incoming requests.Use Servet element to configure the instance of servlet & later can be mapped in the servlet mapping using some name the class name some name *.d Source:
Question: Explain the necessity of empty tag?

Answer: When the requested variable does not contain any information, (null or empty) then this tag is used to know the contents present in the other body parts of the tag. If the tag is nested then it is advisable to use this tag as it may contain a bit of information. Source:
Question: What about JSTL and JavaServer Faces ?

Answer: JSTL, the JavaServer Standard Tag Library, is a set of JSP tags that are designed to make it easier to develop Web applications. JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a specification for a new technology that promises to make it easier to write MVC applications, both for the Web and for the desktop.
The inventor of Struts, Craig McClanahan, is the specification co-lead for JavaServer Faces (JSR 127), and architect of the reference implemenation as well as Java Studio Creator. Both JSTL and JSF are comple Source:
Question: What is the difference between Struts 1.0 and Struts 1.1?

Answer: The new features added to Struts 1.1 are
1. RequestProcessor class
2. Method perform() replaced by execute() in Struts base Action Class
3. Changes to web.xml and struts-config.xml
4.Declarative exception handling
5.Dynamic ActionForms
7.Multiple Application Modules
8.Nested Tags
9.The Struts Validator
10.Change to the ORO package
11.Change to Commons logging
12.Removal of Admin actions
13. Deprecation of the GenericDataSource.

Submitt Source:
Question: What is Action Class?

Answer: The Action Class is part of the Model and is a wrapper around the business logic. The purpose of Action Class is to translate the HttpServletRequest to the business logic. To use the Action, we need to Subclass and overwrite the execute() method. In the Action Class all the database/business processing are done. It is advisable to perform all the database related stuffs in the Action Class. The ActionServlet (commad) passes the parameterized class to Action Form using the execute() method. The r Source:
Question: Explain about token feature in Struts?

Answer: <b>Use the Action Token methods to prevent duplicate submits</b>:
There are methods built into the Struts action to generate one-use tokens. A token is placed in the session when a form is populated and also into the HTML form as a hidden property. When the form is returned, the token is validated. If validation fails, then the form has already been submitted, and the user can be apprised.
<li> saveToken(request)
<li> on the ret Source:
Question: What are the drawbacks of Struts

Answer: In struts , their is no facility of backward flow.

Suppose we are in page 1 and when we submit it calls action mapping page2.Their may be lot of variable stored in session , which is available to page2.Now we wish to go page1 from page 2, for this we have to call the action mapping of page1. But struts flow is always in forward direction. So when we call page 1, values stored in session never get reversed.So it reduces the performance.

To resolve this problem of struts, Their is a Source:
Question: Why are my checkboxes not being set from ON to OFF?

Answer: A problem with a checkbox is that the browser will only include it in the request when it is checked. If it is not checked, the HTML specification suggests that it not be sent (i.e. omitted from the request). If the value of the checkbox is being persisted, either in a session bean or in the model, a checked box can never unchecked by a HTML form -- because the form can never send a signal to uncheck the box. The application must somehow ascertain that since the element was not sent that the cor Source:
Question: Explain Struts navigation flow?

Answer: Struts Navigation flow.

1) A request is made from previously displayed view.
2) The request reaches the ActionServlet which acts as the controller .The ActionServlet Looksup the requested URI in an XML file (Struts-Config.xml) and determines the name of the Action class that has to perform the requested business logic.
3)The Action Class performs its logic on the Model Components associated with the Application.
4) Once The Action has been completed its processing it returns th Source:
Question: Why it called Struts?

Answer: Because the designers want to remind us of the invisible underpinnings that hold up our houses, buildings, bridges, and ourselves when we are on stilts. This excellent description of Struts reflect the role the Struts plays in developing web applications. Source:

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