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Question: How does IP Masquerade Work?

Answer: * If your machine is a stand-alone Linux host connected to the Internet
(setting up a firewall is a good idea though), or

* if you already have multiple assigned public addresses for your OTHER
machines, and

* if you don't like the idea of a 'free ride' using Linux and feel more
comfortable using expensive commercial tools to perform the exact same
functionalities.



-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. How does IP Masquerade Work?

Based from the original IP Masquerade FAQ by Ken Eves: Here is a drawing of
the most simplistic setup:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|PPP/ETH/etc. +------------+ +-------------+ |
|to ISP provider | Linux #1 | PPP/ETH/etc. | Anybox | |
| | | | | |
| <---------- modem1| |modem2 ----------- modem3| | |
| | | | | |
| 111.222.121.212 | | 192.168.0.100 | | |
| +------------+ +-------------+ |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

In the above drawing, a Linux box with IP_MASQUERADING is installed as Linux
#1 and is connected to the Internet via PPP, Ethernet, etc. It has an
assigned public IP address of 111.222.121.212. It also has another network
interface (e.g. modem2) connected to allow incoming network traffic be it
from a PPP connection, Ethernet connection, etc.

The second system (which does not need to be Linux) connects into the Linux #
1 box and starts its network traffic to the Internet. This second machine
does NOT have a publicly assigned IP address from the Internet, so it uses an
[http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt?number=1918] RFC1918 private address,
say 192.168.0.100. (see below for more info)

With IP Masquerade and the routing configured properly, this second machine
"Anybox" can interact with the Internet as if it was directly connected to
the Internet with a few small exceptions [noted later].

Quoting Pauline Middelink (the founder of Linux's IPMASQ):

"Do not forget to mention that the "ANYBOX" machine should have the Linux #1
box configured as its default gateway (whether it be the default route or
just a subnet is no matter). If the "ANYBOX" machine is connected via a PPP
or SLIP connection, the Linux #1 machine should be configured to support
proxy arp for all routed addresses. But, the setup and configuration of proxy
arp is beyond the scope of this document. Please see the [http://www.tldp.org
/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO/index.html] PPP-HOWTO for more details."

The following is an excerpt on how IPMASQ briefly works though this will be
explained in more detail later. This short text is based from a previous post
on comp.os.linux.networking which has been edited to match the names used in
the above example:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| o I tell machine ANYBOX that my PPP or Ethernet connected Linux box is its |
| gateway. |
| |
| o When a packet comes into the Linux box from ANYBOX, it will assign the |
| packet to a new TCP/IP source port number and insert its own IP address |
| inside the packet header, saving the originals. The MASQ server will |
| then send the modified packet over the PPP/ETH interface onto the |
| Internet. |
| |
| o When a packet returns from the Internet into the Linux box, Linux |
| examines if the port number is one of those ports that was assigned |
| above. If so, the MASQ server will then take the original port and |
| IP address, put them back in the returned packet header, and send |
| the packet to ANYBOX. |
| |
| o The host that sent the packet will never know the difference. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Another IP Masquerading Example:

A typical example is given in the diagram below:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Ethernet |
| 192.168.0.x |
| +----------+ |
| | | |
| | A-box |:::::: |
| | |.2 : |
| +----------+ : |
| : +----------+ PPP/ETH |
| +----------+ : .1 | Linux | link |
| | | :::::::| Masq-Gate|:::::::::::::::::::>> Internet |
| | B-box |:::::: | | 111.222.121.212 |
| | |.3 : +----------+ |
| +----------+ : |
| : |
| +----------+ : |
| | | : |
| | C-box |:::::: |
| | |.4 |
| +----------+ |
| |
| |
| | | | > |
| | <-Internal Network--> | | <- External Network ----> > |
| | connected via an | | Connected from the > |
| | Ethernet hub or | | Linux server to your > |
| | switch | | Internet connection > |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

In this example, there are (4) computer systems that we are concerned about.
There is also presumably something on the far right that your PPP/ETH
connection to the Internet comes through (modem server, DSL DSLAM, Cablemodem
router, etc.). Out on the Internet, there exists some remote host (very far
off to the right of the page) that you are interested in communicating with).
The Linux system named Masq-Gate is the IP Masquerading gateway for ALL
internal networked machines. In this example, the machines A-box, B-box, and
C-box would have to go through the Masq-Gate to reach the Internet. The
internal network uses one of several [http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/cgi-bin/
rfc/rfc1918.html] RFC-1918 assigned private network addresses, where in this
case, would be the Class-C network 192.168.0.0. If you aren't familiar with
RFC1918, it is encouraged to read the first few chapters of the RFC but the
jist of it is that the TCP/IP addresses 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16-31.0.0/12, and
192.168.0.0/16 are reserved. When we say "reserved", we mean that anyone can
use these addresses as long as they aren't routed over the Internet. ISPs are
even allowed to use this private addressing space as long as they keep these
addresses within their own networks and NOT advertise them to other ISPs.
Unfortunately, this isn't always the case but thats beyond the scope of this
HOWTO.

Anyway, the Linux box in the diagram above has the TCP/IP address 192.168.0.1
while the other systems has the addresses:



* A-Box: 192.168.0.2

* B-Box: 192.168.0.3

* C-Box: 192.168.0.4




The three machines, A-box, B-box and C-box, can have any one of several
operating systems, just as long as they can speak TCP/IP. Some such as
Windows 95, Macintosh MacTCP or OpenTransport , or even another Linux box
have the ability to connect to other machines on the Internet. When running
the IP Masquerade, the masquerading system or MASQ-gate converts all of these
internal connections so that they appear to originate from the masq-gate
itself. MASQ then arranges so that the data coming back to a masqueraded
connection is relayed to the proper originating system. Therefore, the
systems on the internal network are only able to see a direct route to the
internet and are unaware that their data is being masqueraded. This is called
a "Transparent" connection.

NOTE: Please see Chapter 7 for more details on topics such as:



* The differences between NAT, MASQ, and Proxy servers.

* How packet firewalls work



Category IP Masquerading Interview Questions & Answers - Exam Mode / Learning Mode
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Added on 5/15/2014
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Question: How does IP Masquerade Work?
Answer:

* If your machine is a stand-alone Linux host connected to the Internet
(setting up a firewall is a good idea though), or

* if you already have multiple assigned public addresses for your OTHER
machines, and

* if you don't like the idea of a 'free ride' using Linux and feel more
comfortable using expensive commercial tools to perform the exact same
functionalities.



-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. How does IP Masquerade Work?

Based from the original IP Masquerade FAQ by Ken Eves: Here is a drawing of
the most simplistic setup:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|PPP/ETH/etc. +------------+ +-------------+ |
|to ISP provider | Linux #1 | PPP/ETH/etc. | Anybox | |
| | | | | |
| <---------- modem1| |modem2 ----------- modem3| | |
| | | | | |
| 111.222.121.212 | | 192.168.0.100 | | |
| +------------+ +-------------+ |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

In the above drawing, a Linux box with IP_MASQUERADING is installed as Linux
#1 and is connected to the Internet via PPP, Ethernet, etc. It has an
assigned public IP address of 111.222.121.212. It also has another network
interface (e.g. modem2) connected to allow incoming network traffic be it
from a PPP connection, Ethernet connection, etc.

The second system (which does not need to be Linux) connects into the Linux #
1 box and starts its network traffic to the Internet. This second machine
does NOT have a publicly assigned IP address from the Internet, so it uses an
[http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt?number=1918] RFC1918 private address,
say 192.168.0.100. (see below for more info)

With IP Masquerade and the routing configured properly, this second machine
"Anybox" can interact with the Internet as if it was directly connected to
the Internet with a few small exceptions [noted later].

Quoting Pauline Middelink (the founder of Linux's IPMASQ):

"Do not forget to mention that the "ANYBOX" machine should have the Linux #1
box configured as its default gateway (whether it be the default route or
just a subnet is no matter). If the "ANYBOX" machine is connected via a PPP
or SLIP connection, the Linux #1 machine should be configured to support
proxy arp for all routed addresses. But, the setup and configuration of proxy
arp is beyond the scope of this document. Please see the [http://www.tldp.org
/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO/index.html] PPP-HOWTO for more details."

The following is an excerpt on how IPMASQ briefly works though this will be
explained in more detail later. This short text is based from a previous post
on comp.os.linux.networking which has been edited to match the names used in
the above example:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| o I tell machine ANYBOX that my PPP or Ethernet connected Linux box is its |
| gateway. |
| |
| o When a packet comes into the Linux box from ANYBOX, it will assign the |
| packet to a new TCP/IP source port number and insert its own IP address |
| inside the packet header, saving the originals. The MASQ server will |
| then send the modified packet over the PPP/ETH interface onto the |
| Internet. |
| |
| o When a packet returns from the Internet into the Linux box, Linux |
| examines if the port number is one of those ports that was assigned |
| above. If so, the MASQ server will then take the original port and |
| IP address, put them back in the returned packet header, and send |
| the packet to ANYBOX. |
| |
| o The host that sent the packet will never know the difference. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Another IP Masquerading Example:

A typical example is given in the diagram below:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Ethernet |
| 192.168.0.x |
| +----------+ |
| | | |
| | A-box |:::::: |
| | |.2 : |
| +----------+ : |
| : +----------+ PPP/ETH |
| +----------+ : .1 | Linux | link |
| | | :::::::| Masq-Gate|:::::::::::::::::::>> Internet |
| | B-box |:::::: | | 111.222.121.212 |
| | |.3 : +----------+ |
| +----------+ : |
| : |
| +----------+ : |
| | | : |
| | C-box |:::::: |
| | |.4 |
| +----------+ |
| |
| |
| | | | > |
| | <-Internal Network--> | | <- External Network ----> > |
| | connected via an | | Connected from the > |
| | Ethernet hub or | | Linux server to your > |
| | switch | | Internet connection > |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

In this example, there are (4) computer systems that we are concerned about.
There is also presumably something on the far right that your PPP/ETH
connection to the Internet comes through (modem server, DSL DSLAM, Cablemodem
router, etc.). Out on the Internet, there exists some remote host (very far
off to the right of the page) that you are interested in communicating with).
The Linux system named Masq-Gate is the IP Masquerading gateway for ALL
internal networked machines. In this example, the machines A-box, B-box, and
C-box would have to go through the Masq-Gate to reach the Internet. The
internal network uses one of several [http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/cgi-bin/
rfc/rfc1918.html] RFC-1918 assigned private network addresses, where in this
case, would be the Class-C network 192.168.0.0. If you aren't familiar with
RFC1918, it is encouraged to read the first few chapters of the RFC but the
jist of it is that the TCP/IP addresses 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16-31.0.0/12, and
192.168.0.0/16 are reserved. When we say "reserved", we mean that anyone can
use these addresses as long as they aren't routed over the Internet. ISPs are
even allowed to use this private addressing space as long as they keep these
addresses within their own networks and NOT advertise them to other ISPs.
Unfortunately, this isn't always the case but thats beyond the scope of this
HOWTO.

Anyway, the Linux box in the diagram above has the TCP/IP address 192.168.0.1
while the other systems has the addresses:



* A-Box: 192.168.0.2

* B-Box: 192.168.0.3

* C-Box: 192.168.0.4




The three machines, A-box, B-box and C-box, can have any one of several
operating systems, just as long as they can speak TCP/IP. Some such as
Windows 95, Macintosh MacTCP or OpenTransport , or even another Linux box
have the ability to connect to other machines on the Internet. When running
the IP Masquerade, the masquerading system or MASQ-gate converts all of these
internal connections so that they appear to originate from the masq-gate
itself. MASQ then arranges so that the data coming back to a masqueraded
connection is relayed to the proper originating system. Therefore, the
systems on the internal network are only able to see a direct route to the
internet and are unaware that their data is being masqueraded. This is called
a "Transparent" connection.

NOTE: Please see Chapter 7 for more details on topics such as:



* The differences between NAT, MASQ, and Proxy servers.

* How packet firewalls work
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